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This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published
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Mozambique: Corruption and Murder
Africa Policy E-Journal
March 4, 2003 (030304)
Mozambique: Corruption and Murder
(Reposted from sources cited below)
This posting contains background information and a request for
individual signatures on a petition to Transparency International,
nominating murdered economist Antonio Siba-Siba Macuacua in
Mozambique for the organization's integrity award. As noted in the
background material from Joseph Hanlon and the Mozambican News
Agency below, the trial for the murder of journalist Carlos Cardoso
concluded in January with conviction and strong sentences for his
murderers. But the issues of corruption and intimidation Cardoso
was dealing with have not been resolved. A key test is the stalled
investigation of the murder of economist and banker Macuacua.
For more background, in Portuguese and English, see
To sign the petition to support the nomination , please use the email
address in the posting below. Please note that the request is
for individual support, not for organizational endorsements.
Murdered Mozambican Economist Nominated for Transparency
March 2, 2003
This e-mailing was circulated by Joseph Hanlon, email@example.com
As part of the campaign to force the Mozambican government to
investigate the assassination of economist Antonio Siba-Siba
Macuacua, a group of prominent Mozambicans has nominated him
posthumously for the 2003 Integrity Award of the anti-corruption
body Transparency International (TI).
Among those nominating Siba-Siba are: Mozambique's former first
lady, Graca Machel; former finance minister Abdul Magid Osman; the
country's best known writer, novelist Mia Couto; Supreme Court
judge Norberto Carrilho; prominent journalists Salomao Moyana and
Machado da Graca; and economists Roberto Tibana and Antonio
A petition in support of the nomination (below) is now being
circulated, and readers of this newsletter and other supporters of
Mozambique are encouraged to sign.
Siba-Siba was the head of banking supervision at the Bank of
Mozambique and became emergency chair of the privatised Austral
Bank when it collapsed in April 2001 after fraud carried out by
highly placed people. Siba-Siba attempted to recover bad debts,
including some from senior people in government and in Frelimo. He
also cancelled contracts signed by the previous board, including
one in with Nyimpine Chissano, son of President Joaquim Chissano,
who was paid $3000 per month despite his lack of experience in
On 11 August 2001, unknown assailants murdered Siba-Siba as he
worked in his office on the top floor of the Austral headquarters
and threw his body down the stairwell. The nominees for the TI
award say that the murder of Siba-Siba "was meant to send a signal
that organized crime was very much in control." They note that
"there are no indications of firm steps being taken by the
authorities to seriously investigate, find the suspected killers
and their masters, and subject them to trial. On the contrary, many
people are still being subjected to pressure and made fearful of
continuing the call for justice."
A more detailed AIM report is below. A longer report on the bank
scandals and assassination of Siba-Siba is on the web on
PETITION TO SUPPORT TI NOMINATION
In November 2000, journalist Carlos Cardoso was assassinated for
investigating bank fraud. Initially there was no investigation. But
there was an international campaign, including an award by
Transparency International. Under this pressure, the killing was
investigated, and in January 2003 six people were found guilty of
that murder. A similar campaign can force an investigation of the
assassination of Siba-Siba. A key step would be a TI award, and we
ask economists and all those interested in Mozambique and in
justice and integrity to sign this petition to Transparency
- Alan Harding, Centre for Study of African Economies, Oxford
- Joseph Hanlon, Open University
If you wish to support this petition, which will be sent to the
Transparency International office in Berlin, Germany, please reply
to firstname.lastname@example.org by 15 March stating your name, address
(city, country) and, optionally, your professional affiliation.
Also, please circulate this petition to your friends and contacts.
TEXT OF THE PETITION TO TI:
We, the undersigned, wish to support the recent nomination of
Antonio Siba-Siba Macuacua for the 2003 Transparency International
Integrity Awards. We believe that Siba-Siba would be a worthy
recipient of this reward in recognition of his outstanding courage,
determination and integrity as a government official seeking to
investigate and publicise widespread fraud and high-level
corruption in the Mozambican banking sector. We also believe that
this award would play an important role in putting necessary
pressure on the Mozambican authorities to instigate a full and
comprehensive investigation into his brutal assassination on
Saturday 11 August 2001, which, to date, has been sadly lacking.
In his short career, António Siba-Siba Macuacua had already
demonstrated that he possessed the necessary qualities to be a role
model for a new, younger generation of Mozambican leaders wishing
to work for a society based upon transparency, justice and the rule
of law. His assassination was designed to send a clear message to
those involved in Mozambican public life that such a society is not
achievable. By supporting his nomination for this award and by
demanding that those involved in his murder be brought to justice,
we wish to declare our solidarity with all those in Mozambique who
are working for higher standards in public life and against the
forces of crime and corruption.
104203E Siba-Siba Nominated for International Award
Maputo, 26 Feb (AIM) - A group of prominent Mozambicans have
nominated murdered economist Antonio Siba-Siba Macuacua
posthumously for the 2003 Integrity Award, the prize awarded by the
anti-corruption body Transparency International (TI).
Siba-Siba was the head of banking supervision at the Bank of
Mozambique. When the privatised Austral Bank collapsed under a
mountain of bad debt in April 2001, and its private shareholders
refused to recapitalise the bank, returning their shares to the
state instead, the Central Bank appointed the 33 year old SibaSiba
chairman of a provisional board set up to rescue Austral.
Siba-Siba set about investigating the true state of the Austral
finances, and attempting to recover the debts. He even had a list
of over 1,200 debtors published in the main daily paper "Noticias"
He also cancelled those contracts signed by the previous board
which he regarded as worthless. One of the contracts he tore up was
with Nyimpine Chissano, oldest son of President Joaquim Chissano,
who had been hired as a consultant on the breathtaking salary of
3,000 dollars a month, despite his lack of experience in banking.
On 11 August 2001, unknown assailants attacked Siba-Siba as he
worked in his office on the top floor of the Austral headquarters.
They murdered him and threw his body down the stairwell. Since that
date nobody has been arrested for the assassination, and the police
have issued virtually no statements, beyond the routine claim that
investigations are continuing.
Among those nominating Siba-Siba for the integrity award are the
country's former first lady, Graca Machel, former finance minister
Abdul Magid Osman, the country's best known writer, novelist Mia
Couto, Supreme Court judge Norberto Carrilho, prominent journalists
Salomao Moyana and Machado da Graca, and economists Roberto Tibana
and Antonio Francisco.
In their statement backing the nomination, they describe Siba-Siba
as "a man of integrity and competence, full of energy, driven only
by the sense of well-doing for his country, an example for his
generation and for generations to come, who was perfidiously
targeted by organised crime, and killed in the most barbaric way".
The group argue that the murder of Siba-Siba "was meant to send a
signal that organized crime was very much in control and would not
tolerate those who crossed their line".
They note that "there are no indications of firm steps being taken
by the authorities to seriously investigate, find the suspected
killers and their masters, and subject them to trial".
"On the contrary", they add, "many people are still being subjected
to pressure and made fearful of continuing the call for justice.
Domestic civil society has awoken and is doing its best to support
and encourage those in the police and judiciary who remain honest
and willing to discharge their duties with courage, responsibility
and honesty, but there is a desperate need for moral support".
The nominators argue that "By awarding Antonio Siba-Siba Macuacua
the Integrity Award and, in doing so, further raising the awareness
of the local and the international community and organizations for
his case, Transparency International will make an important
contribution to the cause of fighting against corruption in
Mozambique, Africa, and the world at large".
The nomination of Siba-Siba now goes to the Transparency
International Integrity Awards committee, which will draw up a
shortlist. The winners will be announced at the opening of the 11th
International Anti-Corruption Conference to be held in Seoul, South
Korea, on 25 May.
The Chairman of the Board of Directors of Transparency
International, Peter Eigen, describes TI as "the only nongovernmental
organisation dedicated to the struggle against
corruption". It has more than 90 national branches throughout the
world, working to reduce the supply and demand of corruption.
A recent article by Eigen notes that one in four of the journalists
killed in 2001 because they were investigating corruption. That
year TI awarded murdered Mozambican journalist Carlos Cardoso a
posthumous award, describing him as "a symbol of tenacity and
integrity in the battle against corruption". (AIM) pf/ (669)
Carlos Cardoso Murder Trial
Mailing 14 - 31 January 2003
AIM clippings circulated by Joseph Hanlon (email@example.com)
ANIBALZINHO RECAPTURED & RETURNED TO MAPUTO: Anibalzinho, who was
convicted today (Friday) of organising the killing of Carlos
Cardoso, was returned to Maputo this evening. He had been allowed
to escape from the maximum security prison on 1 September, and was
arrested near Pretoria, South Africa, yesterday.
OTHERS MAY BE INVOLVED: Giving his ruling, the presiding judge,
Augusto Paulino stressed that "others" could also have been
involved in the murder of journalist Carlos Cardoso. Paulino
specifically mentioned Nyimpine Chissano, the son of President
Joaquim Chissano, who is already under investigation by the Public
Prosecutor's Office. Businesswoman Maria Candida Cossa and others
with links at the top of Frelimo were also mentioned at the trial,
both in connection with the murder, and in relation to money
laundering and other financial misconduct.
ALL 6 CONVICTED: All six men accused for murdering journalist
Carlos Cardoso were found guilty today and sentenced to long jail
terms. Anibal dos Santos Junior ("Anibalzinho"), who escaped from
prison and was tried in absentia, and who recruited the death squad
that murdered Cardoso and drove the car used in the ambush, was
sentenced to 28 years and 6 months in prison. The two other members
of the death squad, Carlitos Rachide ("Carlitos") who fired the
fatal shots, and Manuel Fernandes (“Escurinho”) who acted as
look-out, each received a sentence of 23 years and 6 months. The
other three were found guilty of ordering the assassination. Loan
shark Nini Satar was sentenced to 24 years imprisonment and his
brother Ayob Satar, owner of the Unicambios foreign exchange
bureau, to 23 years and three months. Their associate, former bank
manager Vicente Ramaya, received a sentence of 23 years and six
months. Carlos Cardoso's two children were awarded $588,000 in
compensation and the injured driver, Carlos Manjate, was awarded
123103E Cardoso Murder: Long Prison Sentences Imposed
Maputo, 31 Jan 2003 (AIM) - The Maputo City Court on Friday found
all six men charged with the murder of Mozambique's top
investigative journalist Carlos Cardoso guilty, and sentenced them
to prison terms of up to 28 years and six months.
All six were also found guilty of the attempted murder of Cardoso's
driver, Carlos Manjate, who was severely injured in the November
The man who received the longest jail term is Anibal dos Santos
Junior ("Anibalzinho"). He was tried in absentia, because he was
illicitly released from the Maputo top security prison on 1
September. However, South African police arrested him on the
outskirts of Pretoria on Thursday, and he is likely to be
extradited to Mozambique at the weekend.
The court found that Anibalzinho recruited the death squad that
murdered Cardoso and drove the car used in the ambush.
He was sentenced to 22 years for first degree murder, 18 years for
attempted murder, 10 years for criminal conspiracy, 10 years for
the theft of the car used in the assassination, 9 years for illegal
use of a firearm, 14 months for the use of a false passport, eight
months for two counts of the use of false names, and four months
for making false statements to the authorities.
This was consolidated into a single prison term of 28 years and six
months. This is longer than the usual maximum of 24 years, partly
because of the multiplicity of crimes committed, and partly because
the court decided that Anibalzinho is "a habitual delinquent".
The two other members of the death squad, Carlitos Rachide (who
fired the fatal shots), and Manuel Fernandes (who acted as
look-out), each received a sentence of 23 years and six months.
Telling marginally in their favour was the fact that they had both
freely confessed to the crime, which the court regarded as a
The other three accused were all found guilty of ordering the
crime. Loan shark Momade Assife Abdul Satar ("Nini") was sentenced
to 24 years imprisonment, and his brother, Ayob Abdul Satar, owner
of the Unicambios foreign exchange bureau, is to serve 23 years and
three months. Their associate, former bank manager Vicente Ramaya,
received a sentence of 23 years and six months.
In addition, the court ordered the six to pay compensation of 14
billion meticais (588,000 US dollars) to Cardoso's two children, 13
year old Ibo and seven year old Milena, and 500 million meticais
(21,000 US dollars) to Carlos Manjate.
This is 100 per cent of the compensation which the lawyers for the
Cardoso family and for Manjate had demanded. In addition, the court
ordered Anibalzinho and Fernandes to pay 12,000 dollars to the
company that owned the stolen Citi-Golf used in the murder, even
though the company had not asked for compensation.
The court decreed that a variety of goods seized from the assassins
are forfeit to the state. These include all the mobile phones that
they were using illicitly in the prison, and cars purchased with
the payment for the assassination.
One of these cars is a Mercedes-Benz acquired by Anibalzinho
immediately after the murder. The presiding judge, Augusto Paulino,
noted that this car "has miraculously returned to a relative of
Anibalzinho from the police car park where it was being held". He
issued a warrant ordering that the Mercedes be seized at once, and
returned to police custody.
In the four hour ruling, giving the court's reasons for its verdict
and sentence, Paulino stressed that "others" could also have been
involved in the murder. The court agreed with the prosecution that
the reason why the Satar brothers and Ramaya~ wanted to eliminate
Cardoso was because of his investigation into the massive fraud in
which the country's largest bank, the BCM, lost 144 billion
meticais (14 million dollars at the exchange rate of the time). The
money was stolen at Ramaya's BCM branch, through accounts opened by
members of the Abdul Satar family.
But Paulino did not rule the possibility that other people may have
been involved in the assassination for "other motives".
The court believed that the murder had been plotted at
conspiratorial meetings held in mid-2000 in the Rovuma hotel. But
the judges believed that there had been other meetings "which
included the participation of individuals other than the
defendants". These meetings had taken place at Unicambios, at the
house of rich businesswoman Candida Cossa, and at Expresso Tours,
the company owned by Nyimpine Chissano, the oldest son of President
Paulino noted that these meetings, at which Nyimpine Chissano was
allegedly present were reported by Nini Satar to Antonio
Frangoulis, the then head of the Maputo branch of the Criminal
Investigation Police (PIC). Frangoulis reported this to his
superiors (including Interior Minister Almerino Manhenje),
following which he was sacked.
The court could neither condemn or acquit Nyimpine Chissano, since
he is not a defendant in this case. But the fact that Paulino
mentioned Nyimpine and Expresso Tours will certainly give further
impetus to the separate case file, currently in the hands of the
Public Prosecutor's Office, in which Chissano Jr is a suspect.
(AIM) pf/ (835)
Date distributed (ymd): 030304
Region: Southern Africa
Issue Areas: +economy/development+ +political/rights+
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