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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Peace Monitor II, 2
Any links to other sites in this file from 1995 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
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Angola: Peace Monitor II, 2
Date Distributed (ymd): 951026



Cantonment key bottleneck in peace process

The United Nations Secretary General, Dr Boutros
Boutros-Ghali has called for an increase in efforts to
quarter UNITA troops, pointing out the crucial role this has
in the whole peace process as agreed under the Lusaka
Protocol (see ACTSA Briefing Paper +Prospects for Peace and
Democracy in Angola, a Summary and Analysis of the Lusaka
Protocol signed on 20 November 1994+).

In his report to the UN Security Council on 4 October
(S/1995/842) Dr Boutros-Ghali stated that he remained
+concerned at the slow progress in the quartering process,
which is essential for the early implementation of the other
provisions of the Lusaka Protocol. I have asked UNAVEM
(United Nations Angola Verification Mission) to intensify
its efforts to accelerate this process+.

However, the Secretary General reports that significant
progress has been made, although much remains to be done:
+UNAVEM has reconnoitred all 15 proposed quartering areas,
and 11 of them have been approved by the parties+.

According to Dr Boutros-Ghali:

- Vila Nova and Londiumbali in Huambo have almost been
- quartering areas in Negage in Uige, Quibaxe in
Kwanza-Norte, and Quibala in Kwanza-Sul were expected to be
ready by the third week in October.

The Secretary General points out that progress has been slow
owing to inadequate conditions and delays in the arrival of
personnel contributed by UNITA to undertake construction
work. In response to these problems a commercial contractor
has been hired to assist with the establishment of the ten
remaining sites.

Donors fail to pay for peace process

However, there remains serious financial shortcomings, even
in the crucial quartering phase. According to the United
Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs in Geneva, the
total funding needed for demobilisation and reintegration is
$104.5 million, of which $54.4 million is required for the
quartering areas. So far only $19.9 million in confirmed
pledges have been made for the quartering phase.

Commenting on these figures in his report to the Security
Council, Dr Boutros-Ghali states that +it is imperative that
every effort is made to ensure that the gains achieved so
far are sustained and reinforced by increased financial,
technical and material assistance from the donor community,
especially for the reintegration of demobilised soldiers and
the rehabilitation of the Angolan economy+.

Dr Boutros-Ghali also points out that total unpaid
contributions to all peacekeeping operations amounts to $2.4
billion. Of this, outstanding assessed contributions to the
Special Account of UNAVEM III amounts to $117 million.

Deminers graduate

The Secretary General reported on 4 October that demining
has continued, and that a South African commercial company
has been contracted to undertake mine clearance and
verification on 7,000 km of roads.

Both the Angolan army, FAA, and UNITA are continuing to
undertake demining, with UNAVEM providing UNITA with
demining equipment. International NGOs have been active in
mine awareness training, with special emphasis being given
to risk reduction in the quartering areas. The Mine
Awareness Training School has received nine instructors from
UNAVEM, and the Angolan National Institute for the Removal
of Explosives (INAROE) is recruiting 250 deminers, including
50 from UNITA, to be trained and equipped for mine clearing.

The UN Humanitarian Assistance Co-ordination Unit (UCAH) in
its latest Weekly Information Report (issue no.39) states
that the first set of mine awareness instructors have
graduated. They have been trained by the NPA for World
Vision and the Catholic Relief Services. The second course
began on 23 September for staff of various relief agencies
operating in the country.

UNAVEM deployment grows

The Secretary General of the UN has reported that the
strength of UN units has almost reached 5,000, with the
deployment proceeding smoothly.

The UN expects that infantry units from Argentina and Zambia
will be deployed by the end of October, joining:

- the Uruguayan and Indian battalions who have been
operational since August 1995;
- the Zimbabwean and Romanian battalions who have almost
completed their deployment in north-eastern and
south-eastern regions respectively;
- the advance party of the Brazilian battalion who have
arrived, and whose unit will complete its induction in the
eastern region by the end of October;
- the Portuguese logistics company who completed their
induction on 30 August;
- the Indian engineer squadron and the Romanian field
hospital who are fully operational;
- the Brazilian engineer squadron who have started
- the Russian helicopter unit which is fully operational;
- the engineer squadron from Bangladesh, the Argentine naval
unit and the Republic of Korea bridging company, who
conducted their detailed reconnaissance and were due to
arrive in early October.

The British logistics battalion has returned home after
completing its tour of duty. It has been replaced by a
commercial contractor as planned.

Ceasefire violations fall

The report to the UN Security Council from Dr Boutros-Ghali
stated that cease-fire violations have reached their lowest
recorded level. Reported violations have dropped from 110 in
July and 95 in August, to 52 in September.

The Secretary General reports that most regions are
relatively calm and stable, except for isolated clashes and
numerous acts of banditry. However, the Secretary General
has warned that tensions remain in the diamond-rich areas of
Lucapa in the north-east where +both sides are seeking to
consolidate and enlarge the area they control.
Reinforcements and sporadic shelling by both sides have also
been reported in the northern region+. In addition tension
has been reported in the southern region in recent weeks.

Savimbi comments on diamond areas

In an interview with the Portuguese weekly newspaper
+Expresso+ on 15 October, Mr Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA,
claimed that the Government did not have the right to take
action against illegal diamond prospectors in the regions
controlled by UNITA.

Referring to the diamond region in the Lundas, Savimbi said
+there are two zones, one of UNITA and one of the
Government. We agree to a general campaign against these
people, prospectors and adventurers, if it is carried out
jointly by the forces of UNITA and the Government. But if
the Government want to do it alone, it has to do it in its
own zone and not UNITA's+.

Peace plans for Cabinda

Meanwhile, the Government has announced a cease-fire with
the Cabinda separatist movement, the Front for the
Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave, FLEC, which was not a
party to the Lusaka Protocol.

According to the London-based journal +Africa Economic
Digest+ (9 October 1995), the Government has announced that
an agreement has been reached with FLEC to suspend
hostilities for four months +to negotiate a pact in the
interests of national reconciliation+.

Cabinda, in the north of Angola, produces 60 per cent of the
country's oil, with offshore wells and onshore facilities of
the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, operated by the US Chevron

Quartering of Rapid Reaction Police

The Secretary General of the United Nations has reported
that several meetings have been held to discuss the section
of the Lusaka Protocol which demands the quartering of the
elite Government Rapid Reaction Police (RRP) and the
disarming of the civilian population by the Angola national

According to the report of the Secretary General, it has now
been agreed that this should take place simultaneously with
the quartering of UNITA soldiers. However, the Secretary
General states that there are indications that the
Government may delay final decisions until after the
quartering of UNITA troops has begun.

Threat to future food production

The humanitarian situation in Angola remains precarious. The
planting season has started without the return of the
majority of refugees and internally displaced people.

People have begun to return, particularly in the provinces
of Benguela, Huambo, Bie and Bengo. Preparations are also
underway for the repatriation of some of the 300,000 Angolan
refugees from neighbouring countries.

The Food and Agriculture Organisation, FAO, and the Ministry
of Agriculture are co-ordinating the distribution of 7,000
tonnes of seeds and over 1.2 million agricultural tools.
Approximately 60 per cent of the seeds and tools are already
in place in the provinces. Provincial humanitarian
co-ordination groups, with Government and UNITA
representatives, have been set up, and are operating in
three provinces.

Mining of kimberlite pipes begin

The Brazilian mining company, Odebrecht Mining Services, has
announced that mining of the first of Angola's 600
kimberlite pipes is scheduled to begin in the north-eastern
Catoca region.  The mine was ready for production in 1992,
but its opening was delayed because of the war. The mine is
40 per cent owned by the state mining company, Endiama, with
a further 40 per cent owned by Russia's Almazi Rossii-Sakha
Company. Odebrecht own the remaining 20 per cent of the

Total investment in the first phase, according to the Africa
Economic Digest (11 September), will be approximately $86.6
million, with gross revenues expected to reach $477.4
million. The quality of Catoca diamonds is classified as 35
per cent gem, 15 per cent near gem and 50 per cent
industrial grade.

Renovation of power lines

The Government is to spend $64 million renovating power
transmission lines from the Cambambe hydro-electric power
station to Luanda and to sub-stations in the provinces of
Luanda, Kwansa-Norte, Malanje and Bengo. The bulk of the
funding is coming from the World Bank, which is providing
$35.5 million, and the African Development Bank which is
providing $20 million.

Conference to mark Independence Day

The Mozambique Angola Committee is holding a one day
conference on 11 November in London to mark Angola
Independence Day.

Among the contributors are the United Nations Association,
Oxfam, UK Working Group on Landmines, and ACTSA - Action for
Southern Africa. Also making a contribution will be Guardian
journalist Victoria Brittain and Angolan economist Victor de
Carvalho.  For further information on the conference ring
0171 387 6771.

Angolan Minister speaker at ACTSA AGM

The Minister for Social Communication will be in London at
the beginning of November to speak to activists promoting
peace and democracy in Southern Africa.

Hendrik Vaal Neto will be one of the keynote speakers at the
Annual General Meeting in London on 4 November of ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa. Further details are available
from ACTSA on +44 171 833 3133.

The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to
the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. It is produced as our
contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency
Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for
international action in support of peace and democracy in

A years subscription to the Angola Peace Monitor is
available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and 15
pounds sterling  elsewhere. Please indicate whether you wish
to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post, fax, or e-mail.
A full set of back issues is available at an additional cost
of 2 pounds sterling.  Payment should be made in pounds
sterling. If you wish to pay in any other currency, you must
add the equivalent of 6 pounds sterling to cover our bank

ACTSA, 28 Penton Street, London N1 9SA, e-mail,  fax +44 171 837 3001, telephone
+44 171 833 3133.

This material is being reposted for wider distribution
by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's
primary objective is to widen the policy debate in the
United States around African issues and the U.S. role
in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
policy-relevant information and analysis usable by a
wide range of groups and individuals.  APIC is
affiliated with the Washington Office on Africa (WOA),
a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil rights
group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.


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