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This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published
by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action
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Angola: Peace Monitor II, 1
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Angola: Peace Monitor II, 1
Date Distributed (ymd): 951004
Angola Peace Monitor number 1, volume II
30 September 1995
*Angola Peace Monitor to be extended*
Welcome to Volume II of the Angola Peace Monitor. ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa - has committed itself to
continuing this service for a further year, in view of the
need for continued vigilance on the situation in Angola.
It is impossible for anyone who has witnessed the
heartbreaking tragedy that revisited Angola at the end of
1992 to be complacent over the peace process. We hope that
subscribers will find this information service of use in
their own efforts to reinforce the peace process.
ACTSA is the successor organisation to the British
Anti-Apartheid Movement. We are therefore acutely aware of
the roots of the problems in Angola: the Portuguese colonial
rule followed by destabilisation launched from apartheid
South Africa. We are also concerned with the wider issues of
peace and democracy throughout the Southern African region,
and recognise the threats to the region of conflict in any
of the member states.
We will be watching not only the implementation of the
Lusaka Protocol, but also progress made in Angola and
internationally towards reconstruction and development. We
welcome comments and information from subscribers, and look
forward to hearing from you.
Please support us in our efforts to improve the Angola Peace
Monitor by subscribing and/or making a donation towards the
costs of producing it.
*Round Table maps out path for reconstruction*
A major international conference organised by the Angolan
government with the assistance of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) took place in Brussels on 25 -
26 September. The conference, in the form of a Round Table,
was hosted by the European Commission, and drew together
over 400 delegates from multilateral and bilateral donors,
non-governmental organisations and corporate bodies.
The meeting was opened by the Prime Minister of Belgium,
Jean-Luc Dehaene. Eduardo Dos Santos, President of Angola,
then presented the Government's two year Community
Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation Programme
Sitting alongside President Dos Santos, in their first
appearance together in Europe, the President of UNITA, Jonas
Savimbi, also addressed the conference, committing himself
and his organisation to the peace process and to the CRNRP.
Jonas Savimbi declared that +I am here to tell you that I
will never again take to the paths of war, nor will my
The meeting was presented with the Angolan government's
strategy in response to the crisis in the country. This was
broadly divided into three interdependent categories:
- the completion of the peace process through the
implementation of the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol (see
ACTSA Briefing Paper +Prospects for Peace and Democracy in
Angola, a Summary and Analysis of the Lusaka Protocol signed
on 20 November 1994+)
- a macroeconomic reform programme beginning with
- the continued implementation of the United Nations
Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UNDHA) 1995 UN
Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola, which deals
with the humanitarian needs of the population, alongside the
implementation of the CRNRP, its major programme to move the
country into reconstruction and development.
The Round Table resulted in pledges and indications of
contributions of US$993 million, which appeared to exceed
the targets set prior to the meeting.
*Britain fails to commit aid at Round Table*
Following the conference in Brussels, ACTSA expressed
serious concern over the British Government's refusal to
pledge any additional aid in support of the CRNRP.
The British representative at the Round Table told the
conference that the Overseas Development Administration was
unable to commit funds until it had completed present
spending negotiations with the British government's
Treasury. Behind the scenes a bitter battle is being fought
over the Treasury proposal to cut aid in the government's
pending plans to be unveiled in the Chancellor's November
During the Round Table the United States promised $190
million, France $140 million, the Netherlands $60 million,
Norway $30 million, Portugal $16 million and Switzerland $12
million. These promises cover the next two years, and will
only be met if the donors perceive progress in the peace
process and economic reforms.
ACTSA Director, Ben Jackson, speaking from the conference
said +After 30 years of devastating war, Angola at last has
a chance for peace. Britain has played a very positive role
in the provision of troops for the UNAVEM force. But it
would be a historic betrayal if Britain could not play its
part in rebuilding Angola because of Treasury cutbacks+.
Britain announced in late August that it was to contribute
around 2 million pounds sterling for the demobilisation and
reintegration of surplus troops. It also announced on 15
September that 200,000 pounds sterling was to be given to
the British NGO, the Halo Trust, for demining.
*Cantonment signals consolidation of peace process*
Despite serious incidents in some parts of the country (see
separate story), continued progress towards demobilisation
has been reported.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dr Boutros
Boutros-Ghali, in a message to the Round Table of Suppliers
of Funds to Angola, stated that:
+The Angolans have reached agreement on the major issues
involved in the demobilisation of the UNITA soldiers and the
completion of the training of the FAA. The important thing
is, in my view, that progress has been maintained, and we
are pleased to announce that the Vila Nova and Londuimbali
barracks in the centre of the country are now nearing
completion as a result of the good quality labour supplied
by UNITA and the very precious assistance provided by
certain international organisations and NGOs. A start has
already been made on recording the soldiers to be
demobilised and housed in the barracks so they can soon be
admitted. If this new rate is maintained, it is reasonable
to suppose that in the next few months the barracking
operation will prove satisfactory+.
The UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) reported to
the conference that +food, and equipment (tents, tools,
water supplies, and electricity equipment) are available to
install in 3 more of the 15 quartering areas (QAs). The
funding of NGOs which will work in the QAs is now secured
and they will provide humanitarian assistance in three
sectors: health, food distribution and civic education. The
WFP, UNICEF and WHO have initiated the procurement against
confirmed donations which covers part of their requirements,
but additional funding is still urgently required for family
kits and drug kits. A 12 person team from SwedeRelief is
coordinating the logistics for the QAs.+
The DHA also reported that despite a late start in the donor
response for the demobilisation and reintegration programme
(quartering phase), some 47 percent of the requirements have
been promised through UCAH, but only 33 percent are
confirmed pledges. For the Quartering Area phase, the main
shortfalls are in health, hygienic and household family
kits, and the UCAH database for the registration of the
UNITA soldiers. There is still a shortfall of 7,000 metric
tonnes of the anticipated food requirements.
However, many delegates to the Brussels conference,
particularly NGOs working on the ground in Angola,
emphasised their concern over delays in the quartering of
UNITA troops and demining. Without progress in these areas,
they stressed, all other aspects of the implementation of
the peace process and of the reconstruction and development
programmes would be held up. Continued improvements on the
political front and on donor support was needed, they said.
More roads have been opened, and the DHA reports that it is
now a priority to oen up secondary and tertiary roads to
expand access and facilitate free movement of people and
With the opening up of roads the method of distribution of
aid has changed from a 70 percent dependence on airlifts in
November 1994 to 30 percent now. Trucks are being used to
reach cities such as Malange, N'dalatando, Huambo, Kuito and
*Economic reform programme outlined*
As part of the programme for economic recovery, the Angolan
government has recently finished negotiating a stabilisation
and adjustment programme with the Bretton Woods
institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the
According to the IMF, they will be monitoring the
restructuring programme to +help the authorities establish a
track record in the implementation of both coherent and
quantified macroeconomic stabilisation policies and of well
designed structural reforms+.
The Bretton Woods institutions Annual Meetings in
mid-October will, according to the statement of the staff
representative of the IMF to the Round Table, +provide an
opportunity to convene an informal meeting of donors to keep
them informed on Angola's financial needs and to provide
feedback on its progress in implementing the early measures
contemplated in the staff-monitored programme+.
The stabilisation programme has the following targets:
- A reduction of the government spending deficit from over
22 percent to 13.5 percent of GDP in 1995 and only 10.5
percent in 1996. This is to be done through the broadening
of the tax base and the control of public expenditure.
- A monetary and budgetary policy to reduce inflation from
970 percent in 1994 to 80 percent in 1996.
- Management of the exchange rate
- Reduction in external arrears.
All these measures are part of a year long programme which
will serve as a basis for negotiating with the International
Monetary Fund for a structural adjustment programme. This,
in turn, is expected to pave the way for an overall
restructuring of Angola's official and commercial debt.
Other measures have been taken to 'liberalise' the economy,
including an acceleration in privatisation, and reform of
the banking and financial system, with a move towards
positive real interest rates.
Donors to the Round Table conference in Brussels made clear
that continued support for the CRNRP would be dependent upon
the successful implementation of these tough reforms and
meeting the stringent targets.
*Angola seeks to move from relief to rebuilding*
The third tier of the Angolan government's programme to
resolve the crisis facing Angola is the completion of the
Consolidated Inter-Agency Humanitarian Appeal, launched by
the DHA in February 1995, and revised in June, along with
the implementation of the ambitious Community Rehabilitation
and National Reconciliation Programme (CRNRP).
*Funds shortfall remains for relief work*
The Consolidated Inter-Agency Humanitarian Appeal (Angola
Peace Monitor no.3 and 6) sought to:
- meet the immediate, emergency needs of the Angolan people
- assist with the integration and demobilisation of the two
- fund demining and the resumption of transport and links
between the country's main economic centres.
According to figures produced by the UNDP, progress made so
far in fulfilling the appeal has only been partial:
- The amount required for the humanitarian assistance
aspect, which covered a population of approximately 2.7
million people, was over $176 million. So far there has been
a shortfall of $118 million in the appeal's requirements.
The DHA states that +the humanitarian assistance programme
has still only received limited support. Concern about
demobilisation, reintegration and mine action programmes has
over-taken the regular relief programme. However, key
sectors in the Consolidated Appeal are also major components
of the Round Table. They are jump-start operations for the
CRNRP to take place+.
- The funds budgeted in the appeal for the de-mobilisation
and integration of troops is $92 million. Until the Round
Table conference, no funds have yet been allocated to this
stage, testimony to the delays in the implementation of the
- The funds budgeted for de-mining total $12 million, with a
shortfall of $11 million. It is estimated that Angola now
has 70,000 amputees resulting from injuries from mines, with
an estimated equal number of deaths from mines. The Angolan
government estimates that there remain between 10 and 15
million mines planted around the country. The Angolan
government has made contributions towards the demining
programmes, but funds from international donors are urgently
*Community rehabilitation programme outlined*
The Community Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation
Programme is a major two year programme over 1996 and 1997
for the recovery and reconstruction of Angola. It was
conceived by the Angolan government with technical
assistance from the UNDP.
Everyone at the Round Table agreed that this was an
ambitious programme, but was needed to address the enormous
social and economic problems faced by Angola.
- according to recent estimates by UNICEF, almost one in
three children will die before they reach the age of five
(320 per 1000);
- 280,000 Angolans are living as refugees in neighbouring
- approximately three million Angolans are in need of food
- the urban population has risen from 15 percent in 1970 to
about 50 percent in 1995, resulting in huge squatter
settlements and social dislocation;
- only 41 percent of the population has access to clean
- Angola's life expectancy rate is only 45 years.
The programme was prepared after widespread consultations at
a local level (municipio), involving traditional leaders,
NGOs and churches, vocational associations and the private
sector. UNITA played an active part in the preparatory work.
The programme concentrates on three areas:
- resuscitating production and employment
- rebuilding basic infrastructure
- reviving critical social services
The aim of the programme is to stabilise society including:
- the reintegration of refugees (280,000) and displaced
people, who make up third of the population;
- the reintegration of demobilised troops (around 100,000);
- to promote conditions for national reconciliation;
- to promote economic and social recovery in a decentralised
- to lay the basis for sustained development and growth.
The programme in fact comprises of 18 provincial programmes,
each being a set of projects reflecting community needs.
Projects were favoured which were:
- small scale with the greatest number of beneficiaries
- of simplified tecnologies, preferably being labour
- utilising grass-roots participation.
The programme can also be analysed by sector. This shows
that 44 percent of the funds are allocated to the
rehabilitation of productive capacity (agriculture and small
rural enterprises). 28 percent is allocated to the
restoration of basic social services (mainly primary health
care and basic education), and 26 percent is allocated to
the rehabilitation of the infrastructure (mainly roads and
bridges, and water and sanitation).
The programme has a very strong rural bias, reflecting the
serious social consequences of the war on the rural
population, which forced many of them to flee to the cities.
The UNDP reports that around half of the Angolan population
now lives in huge squatter settlements with inadequate
infrastructure, un- and under-employment, and increasing
violence and insecurity.
Particular attention is also made to the most vulnerable
groups such as abandoned children, women living alone and
those wounded and maimed during the war.
The programme hopes to create 1.4 million jobs, and by
increasing domestic production it hopes to reduce
*Funding the programme*
The total cost of the CRNRP has been estimated by the
Angolan government to be $707 million, with $279 million
required in the first year.
The Angolan government is to provide 15 percent of the
funds, and the Angolan private sector and the local
population (in kind) is to provide up to a further 20
percent of resources which are not budgeted for. The rest of
the funds, $639 million, will be provided by the
international community. Further assistance from the Angolan
government will come in the form of import duty exemptions,
and the waiving of fees and taxes.
Projects will be approved and monitored by a special
committee set up jointly by the Angolan government, donors
and the UNDP.
The emphasis on the +people centred+ approach has been
welcomed by donors. However, doubts have expressed by some
donors over the capacity of Angola to manage to absorb the
funds, given the shortage of human resources caused by the
war. However, the government argues that this factor has
been recognised, and the programme outlines planning
mechanism on the national and provincial level which will
involve the government, UNITA, donors, NGOs and others to
coordinate the implementation of the projects.
*UNDP budget slashed*
In a report to the UNDP's Executive Board, James Speth the
UNDP Administrator proposed a volume reduction of $52
million in the core budget for 1996-7. The UNDP's core
budget has been reduced by about 11 percent since 1992.
Headquarters core staff will have been reduced by 31
percent, and country offices by 11 percent.
The UNDP is playing a crucial role in Angola in giving
technical support to the government in drawing up and
implementing its reconstruction and development programme.
Brigadier Walter Gomes, chief of staff of the Forcas Armadas
Angolanas (FAA) at the southern military front, has stated
that the army found 105 dead and 90 wounded in Calepi
following the withdrawal of UNITA from Caluquembe in Huila
province on 15 September.
It was also reported by ANGOP, the official Angolan news
agency, that UNITA also attacked Chavolo and Caissombua in
the municipality of Caluquembe. Five UNITA soldiers and four
government soldiers were reported as having been killed in
UNITA radio, Voice of the Resistance of the Black Cockerel,
reported on 30 August that a UNITA soldier was wounded when
government forces attacked UNITA positions in Cabeca de
Cobra in Zaire province.
*Coffee sector to be expanded*
The Angolan government has announced that it intends to
expand the coffee sector within three years from the present
level of 1,000 tonnes to 15,000 tonnes.
Prior to liberation in 1975, Angola was the fourth largest
coffee producer in the world, with a total of 340,000
tonnes. However, the flight of Portuguese settlers with
decolonisation, and the effects of war, production
collapsed. Where there were once 800 coffee plantations. Now
there are less than 12 with production mainly in the hands
of small producers.
ACTSA has in its possession two important documents from the
Round Table. The first is a UNDP document +Republic of
Angola - Aide-Memoire+ (54 pages). The second is produced by
the Angolan Government +Summary: Community Rehabilitation
and National Reconciliation Programme+ (25 pages). If you
are unable to obtain these from the original source, ACTSA
can photocopy these for 5 pounds sterling each (to cover our
The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to
the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. It is produced as our
contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency
Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for
international action in support of peace and democracy in
A years subscription to the Angola Peace Monitor is
available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and 15
pounds sterling elsewhere. Please indicate whether you wish
to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post, fax, or e-mail.
A full set of back issues is available at an additional cost
of 2 pounds sterling.
Payment should be made in pounds sterling. If you wish to
pay in any other currency, you must add the equivalent of
six pound sterling to cover our bank charges.
ACTSA, 28 Penton Street, London N1 9SA, UK, e-mail
firstname.lastname@example.org, fax +44 171 837 3001, telephone
+44 171 833 3133.
This material is being reposted for wider distribution
by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's
primary objective is to widen the policy debate in the
United States around African issues and the U.S. role
in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
policy-relevant information and analysis usable by a
wide range of groups and individuals. APIC is
affiliated with the Washington Office on Africa (WOA),
a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil rights
group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.