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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Angola Peace Monitor Number 7
Any links to other sites in this file from 1995 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Angola: Angola Peace Monitor Number 7
Date Distributed (ymd) : 950811
Number 7, 10 August 1995
Published by Action for Southern Africa on behalf of the
Angola Emergency Campaign

Violations in cease-fire reported

Cautious optimism over the observance of the cease-fire in
Angola has been reported by the United Nations
Secretary-General, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali.

In his report to the UN Security Council on 17 July
(S/1995/588), Dr Boutros-Ghali stated that "the deployment of
United Nations military and police observers  throughout the
country since the adoption of resolution 976 (1995) and the
gradual induction of formed units have contributed to improved
respect for the cease-fire".

The Secretary-General reported that there was no change in the
number of cease-fire violations recorded, with 137 incidents
recorded in both May and June. This compares with 235 in March
and 129 in April.

Dr Boutros-Ghali noted that the main areas of cease-fire
violations were in the  northern parts of the provinces of
Huila, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malange, Moxico and Zaire. None
of the incidents are considered to be "a major breach of the
peace". The reported violations are put in the following
context: "Some incidents may be attributable to delays in the
disengagement of troops, local attempts to regain territory,
increased acts of banditry and lack of troop discipline  or to
the establishment by UNAVEM of more effective verification
mechanisms. In many places the population continues to
complain about harassment and extortion at checkpoints".

Warnings on violations

ANGOP, the official Angolan News Agency has reported a
stepping-up of attacks by UNITA in the centre and south of the
country, including the laying of mines.  According to ANGOP:

- mines have been planted on the road from Cacula to
Caluquembe and Caconda in  Huila province
- on 18 July a vehicle belonging to CARE International set off
a mine killing 2  officials and wounding 5 others
- UNITA attacked a government position 11km from Caluquembe on
19 July
- 2 people were killed and 7 wounded 50km east of Cubal in the
Benguela province
- roads between Benguela and Huambo have been blocked,
impeding the free movement of people and goods
- in the east of the country, a military attack on government
forces took place  in Chingufo, 50km from Dundo in Lunda
Norte, in which 3 troops were killed and  4 wounded.

ANGOP further reports several violations of Angolan airspace
by unidentified aircraft flying out of Zaire. It is presumed
that these aircraft are carrying logistical supplies, and
Angop reports that UNITA troops are being re-equipped.

The Guardian newspaper reported on 1 August that UNITA is
still receiving supplies by air and land through Zaire. The
report is based on an interview with General Joao Matos,
Commander of the Angolan army, Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA.

It reports that there has been a recent reversal of the
partial disengagement of troops, and constant violations of
the cease-fire.

Slow progress on cantonment

The UN Secretary-General has reported slow progress in troop
disengagement, demining and the establishment of quartering
areas. In his report of 17 July, Dr Boutros-Ghali states that
the Government and UNITA  have agreed to keep their troops in
situ until UNITA troops move to quartering  areas and
government troops move to barracks.

Dr Boutros-Ghali points out that "the timely establishment of
quartering areas  for the demobilisation of UNITA troops, the
withdrawal of the Angolan rapid reaction force and FAA troops
to their barracks and the strengthening of the logistic
infrastructure for the unified national army will be of
crucial importance  for the success of the peace process".

The report states that UNAVEM, together with the United
Nations Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit, UCAH, and
some non-governmental organisations, have  conducted a
thorough reconnaissance of most of the areas designated for
the cantonment of UNITA troops. The report said that "a
strenuous effort is under way  to establish at least 4 of the
planned 14 such sites within the next few weeks  in the
strategically important northern and central regions. While
UNAVEM, in  cooperation with humanitarian agencies, will
supply the materials, UNITA is expected to provide the
personnel to construct facilities in the quartering areas.
The United Nations is also requesting assistance from certain
Member States, including those in the region and the two
parties are being urged to finalise the  plans for the
quartering exercise".

The United Nations humanitarian appeal for Angola, issued in
January 1995, has  been readjusted to take into account a
revised demobilisation and reintegration  programme. It is now
envisaged that this programme will require funding amounting
to $92.9 million, of which $48.1 million will be needed for
the first phase  (quartering of UNITA soldiers). The
Secretary-General warns that "prior experience with
demobilisation in Angola and elsewhere indicates that a
comprehensive strategy and the timely and coordinated
provision of donor funding will be indispensable for the
success of this exercise. Now that the requisite strategy for
Angola has been elaborated, it  is critical to secure the
necessary funds, in addition to other resources that  will be
appropriated through UNAVEM III's budget".

He notes that "humanitarian assistance plays an important role
in consolidating  the Angolan peace process, especially in the
demobilisation and reintegration  exercise, which will rely
largely on external resources to support the demobilised UNITA
troops and their dependents. Although many donors have
expressed interest, less than one percent of the voluntary
funds sought for this purpose under the 1995 humanitarian
appeal has been contributed to date. Now that the promising
events of the last two months have improved the prospects for
an early start to quartering and demobilisation, I very much
hope that donors will respond  with generous and timely
financial contributions to the humanitarian effort. Equally,
I appeal to Member States to provide much-needed mine
clearance, bridging and road repair equipment and materials
and other supplies necessary for setting up the quartering

Demobilisation is lengthy process

Under the Lusaka Protocol it was envisaged that, four weeks
following the cease-fire coming into effect, the second phase
of the cease-fire would be entered ( see ACTSA Briefing Paper:
Prospects for Peace and Democracy in Angola, a Summary and
Analysis of the Lusaka Protocol signed on 20 November 1994).

This second phase included: the withdrawal of UNITA troops to
quartering areas;  the collection, storage and custody of
their armaments by the UN; and the completion of the formation
of the FAA, which was disrupted by the return to war by

There have been serious delays in carrying out this second
phase. The London-based journal Africa Confidential (7 July
1995) reports that "lack of progress in  demobilising and
reintegrating the armed forces could undermine the most
promising political initiatives. UN demobilisation coordinator
Carlo Skarmelli says  3 - 5 months are needed just to identify
quartering areas for demobilised UNITA  soldiers.
Demobilisation itself will take several months more. There is
not even a timetable for reintegration".

According to the interview with General Matos in the Guardian,
no lists of UNITA personnel have been provided, and estimates
of the number of UNITA troops vary from 15,000 to 70,000. The
article stated that a recent meeting between FAA and UNITA
military leaders failed to reach agreement on the process for
the integration of UNITA military personnel into FAA.

Secretary-General notes progress

The UN Secretary-General noted in his report of 17 July an
improvement in communications between the Government and

He stated that "since the meeting on 6 May between President
dos Santos and Mr  Savimbi, the peace process has entered an
encouraging new phase. Increased contacts between the
Government and UNITA, and in particular their recent bilateral
meetings in Luanda on political and military matters, give
grounds for hope that the most difficult stage of
implementation of the Lusaka Protocol might now  be over. I
welcome the agreement reached between the two parties on the
adjusted and accelerated timetable for the implementation of
the Protocol, the practical modalities of which are now being
discussed with my Special Representative".

Savimbi offered Vice-Presidency

The leader of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, has been offered one of
the two newly-created posts of Vice-President.

The move is an initiative of the Central Committee of the
Movimento Popular para a Libertacao de Angola (MPLA). At its
meeting on 16 June it suggested a change  in the Constitution
of Angola to allow for two Vice-Presidents to be appointed .

On 26 June a special session of the National Assembly approved
amendments to the Constitution allowing for these new posts.
Jonas Savimbi has been offered the  post, subject to the
demobilisation of UNITA troops. So far he has not responded to
the offer. The other position of Vice-President will be
offered to a representative of the  MPLA.

The National Assembly has also addressed the question of its
term of office. They agreed that it would be impossible to
hold legislative elections due in 1996, and it was agreed to
extend the mandate of the present National Assembly for  a
further 4 years.

UNAVEM III to be extended

The UN Secretary-General has proposed that the Security
Council extend UNAVEM I II for a further six months until 8
February 1996.

In his report of 17 July he informed the Security Council that
the cost of maintaining UNAVEM III beyond 8 August 1995 would
be an estimated $25 million per month. As of 30 June "unpaid
assessed contributions to the UNAVEM special account since the
inception of the mission amounted to $7.2 million".

Secretary-General visits Angola

The Secretary-General of the UN visited Angola from 14-16
July. During his visit Dr Boutros-Ghali met separately with
President dos Santos and Mr Savimbi. The Secretary-General
will be presenting a special report on his visit to the
Security Council in due course.

Further deployment of UNAVEM troops

The deployment of UNAVEM III's military component is generally
proceeding in accordance with the adjusted time-frame set out
in the report to the Security Council by the Secretary-General
on 4 June 1995 (S/1995/458).

According to Dr Boutros-Ghali's report on 17 July, 1,970
personnel have arrived . Elements of the Uruguayan Battalion
and the Indian Engineer Squadron have reached Huambo overland
and established their headquarters there.

The report also states that as of 4 July, 209 civilian police
observers from 19  countries have been deployed, making up the
civilian police component, CIVPOL.

Since the delivery of his report to the Security Council, 500
Indian engineers  have arrived on 20-21 July. They will be
stationed in Uige province to monitor  the quartering and
disarming of UNITA troops. A further battalion, from Zimbabwe,
was expected in July, with another one from Romania expected
in mid-August.

General  Sibanda to head military component

Jane's Defence Weekly reported on 22 July that Major General
Philip Sibanda of  the Zimbabwe National Army has been named
commander of the UN forces in Angola.

Aid conference planned for September

The Angolan Government, with the support of the United Nations
Development Programme and the UN Secretary-General's Special
Representative, is organising a round table for rehabilitation
and community development in September 1995. The round table
programme, which will require up to $620 million to implement,
will  also serve as the overall reference point for United
Nations agencies.

Angolan ties with Portugal

The weekly magazine, West Africa, in its 17-23 July issue
reported that Angola  and Portugal have signed an internal
security agreement within the UN sponsored  framework.

The Mozambique News Agency reports that Foreign Ministers from
Portugal, Brazil  Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape
Verde and Sao Tome met in Lisbon on 19  July to discuss the
possibility of creating a community of Portuguese-speaking
countries - a Lusophone Commonwealth.

Oil production up

Oil production in Angola has reached 660,000 barrels per day,
and is expected to reach 700,000 barrels per day by the end of
1996, according to an article by  Mark Smedley, the Africa
reporter for the London based oil newsletter, Petroleum Argus.

Angola is not limited in its production as it is not a member
of OPEC. It is estimated that offshore production may even
increase to 800,000 barrels per day.

Onshore production has been severely held back by the war.
However, war damaged  operations in Soyo are being restarted,
with further potential onshore operations.

This is the last of the present series of Angola Peace
Monitor. At present we are applying for funding to continue
the service for a further 12 months. This initiative was made
possible with the assistance of a grant from W.O.W. Campaigns
Ltd the campaigning associate of War on Want.

Published by Action for Southern Africa (on behalf of the
Angola Emergency Campaign), 28 Penton Street, London N11 9SA,
UK tel: +44 171 833-3133, fax: +44 171 837-3001, email:


On August 7 the UN Security Council extended the mandate of
UNAVEM III until February 8, 1996, asking the Secretary
General to present a comprehensive report on progress every
two months.  The resolution included a call to the government
of Angola and UNITA to "adopt without further delay a
comprehensive and workable programme for the formation of the
new armed forces."

A UN spokesman said that UNAVEM forces would be bolstered
later in August with two new battalions, from Romania and
Zimbabwe, bringing the total to approximately 5,000 troops.
And the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs issued an
updated appeal for $102 million for a revised assistance
program for the demobilization and social integrations of
former combatants.  Some $52 million is required fro the first
stage of troop quartering, including $26 million in special
assistance to disabled and under-age soliders, who will be the
first to be demobilized.

This material is being reposted for wider distribution
by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's
primary objective is to widen the policy debate in the
United States around African issues and the U.S. role
in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
policy-relevant information and analysis usable by a
wide range of groups and individuals.  APIC is
affiliated with the Washington Office on Africa (WOA),
a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil rights
group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.


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