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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Sudan: Resource Guide (part 1)
Any links to other sites in this file from 1995 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Sudan: Resource Guide (part 1)
Date Distributed (ymd): 950926

Sudan, the largest country in Africa, has had only brief
intervals without war over the four decades since its
independence in 1956.  Only sporadically in the international
spotlight, it has proved one of the continent's most
persistent humanitarian crises.  Currently ruled by a military
regime which has suppressed opposition in the north as well as
carried on a brutal counterinsurgency campaign in the south,
the country is still engaged in what one of its most
distinguished exiles, Francis Deng, has termed a "war of

A wide range of critics have documented systematic human
rights abuses in both north and south by the current regime,
which is inspired and directed by the hard-line National
Islamic Front. Human rights reports have also documented
systematic abuses against civilians by all parties in the war
in the south.

While the future of Sudan will and should be determined
primarily by Sudanese, the international community, including
Sudan's neighbors, the United Nations and other governmental
and non-governmental organizations, are involved not only in
relief work but also in attention to the issues of human
rights and conflict resolution.  The level and the quality of
that involvement will depend, in large part, on the extent to
which there is informed public opinion about the issues.

Opposition inside the country currently has almost totally
suppressed, despite a history of previous popular revolts
which have overturned authoritarian regimes and led to
election of new governments.  Even in exile, Sudanese
opponents of the regime must be cautious, and are divided.
Many keep a low profile, and few of the organizations maintain
public offices.  Nevertheless, there are many sources of good
information available, from Sudanese and non-Sudanese human
rights, religious and relief groups, as well as from
knowledgeable academics.  For the non-specialist, the question
is where to start.

The purpose of this resource guide is to help answer that
question.  It is intended to be selective rather than
comprehensive.  The highest priority is given to material that
is at the same time recent, policy-relevant, concise and
accessible to non-specialists.  But it also includes a number
of other items that are particularly useful, despite being
older, longer or difficult to understand without previous
background.  The reader wishing to dig more deeply should find
many leads to follow in the sources cited, or by contacting
the organizations listed.  The beginner might want to
concentrate on the items marked with + to indicate that they
are quickly read and/or particularly accessible to the non-


General Background

Daly, M.W. and Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, eds.  Civil War in the
Sudan.  London: British Academic Press, 1993.  220pp. ISBN 1-
85043-515-4 (cloth). $69.50.

     A collection of nine background essays of consistently
     high quality, highlighted by editor Daly's introductory
     overview on "the political and economic background of the
     Sudanese civil war."  Has little, however, on period
     after the coup of 1989.  Authors include the editors, as
     well as E. N. Wakoson, A. A. An-Na'im, Doug Johnson,
     Gerard Prunier, Alex de Waal and F. M. Deng.

de Waal, Alex.  "Sudan: Searching for the Origins of
Absolutism and Decay," pp. 177-202 in Development and Change
(Sage Publications), v. 24 (1993).

     This review essay covering nine recent books is a
     challenging overview of the issues facing anyone trying
     to understand the Sudanese crisis in the 1980s and 1990s.
     Although de Waal, a Sudan scholar now with African Rights
     in London, does not answer his own summary question ("why
     things went so disastrously wrong"), he points to
     numerous new factors needing to be considered, such as
     the political economy of emigrant remittances and of the
     war itself.

+Deng, Francis M. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in
the Sudan.  Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1995.
577pp.  ISBN 0-8157-1793-8 (paper).  $24.95.

     A sustained reflection on the roots of the crisis and
     options for solutions, and a fundamental source for
     anyone concerned about the Sudan.  "The starting point to
     any promising initiative for peace," Deng concludes, "is
     to recognize that two parallel visions have emerged in
     the North and the South as a result of historical
     evolution."  "After decades of a debilitating civil war,
     the Sudanese are ready and eager for a solution."  The
     author calls for immediate interim measures to address
     the humanitarian needs of the people.  A long-term
     solution, he says, would require either "redefining the
     national identity so as to be genuinely uniting" or,
     reluctantly, recognizing that "obstacles to national
     unity are perhaps insurmountable" and accepting the taboo
     option of partition.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn,  Richard A. Lobban, and John O. Voll.
Historical Dictionary of the Sudan (2nd ed.). Metuchen, NJ:
Scarecrow Press, 1992. cvii+409pp.  ISBN 0-8108-2547-3.

     A basic reference source including a chronology (from
     prehistoric times through 1991), a 37-page
     introduction(+), dictionary entries on a wide range of
     topics and individuals, and an 150-page bibliography.

+Medani, Khalid, "Sudan's Human and Political Crisis," pp.
203-207 in Current History (May 1993).

     A good summary article highlighting northern as well as
     southern opposition to the current military regime.

+Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP),
"Sudan: Finding Common Ground," special issue (No. 172,
Sept./Oct. 1991) of Middle East Report.  Washington: MERIP,
1500 Massachusetts Ave. NW, 20005; tel: (202) 223-3677. $4.50
for individuals, $6 for libraries plus postage.

     Includes a well-done 5-page primer on +"Sudan: Politics
     and Society," as well as critical essays and interviews
     on the war, famine and the fundamentalist regime,
     featuring B. Yongo-Bure, A. Jamal, A. A. Abbas, M.
     Duffield, B. Malwal and F. Deng.

"Nubia: An Ancient African Civilization."  Special issue of
Expedition: The University Museum Magazine of Archaeology and
Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania (35:2, 1993).
64pp., illustrated.  $8. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania University Museum, 33rd and Spruce Sts.,
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6324.  Phone: (215) 898-4124.

     Collection of articles covering three millennia of the
     ancient and medieval history of Nubia, the southern
     contemporary and rival of ancient Egyptian civilization.
     Historically, Nubian territory extended north of the
     current Egypt-Sudan  border, but was mainly located in
     present-day Sudan. Among several publications related to
     the Museum's travelling exhibit, beginning its current
     tour with summer  1995 at the Smithsonian's National
     Museum of African Art in Washington.  A fuller treatment
     is available in David O'Connor's Ancient Nubia: Egypt's
     Rival in Africa, from the same publisher.

+Salih, Tayeb.  Season of Migration to the North.  Portsmouth,
NH: Heinemann African Writers Series, 1969 (1976).  169pp.
ISBN 0-435-90066-8.  $9.95.

     Powerful novel exploring relationship between Sudan and
     Western culture by leading Sudanese writer, in an
     accessible translation.  Literary critic Edward Said says
     it is "among the six finest novels in modern Arabic

+Voll, John O., ed.  Sudan: State and Society in Crisis.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, in association with
the Middle East Institute, 1991.  170pp.  ISBN 0-253-20683-9
(paper). $10.95.

     Short essays on a range of issues, mostly taken from The
     Middle East Journal (Autumn 1990), by well-informed
     specialists (P. K. Bechtold, F. M. Deng, A.M. Lesch, C.
     Fluehr-Lobban, G.R. Warburg, B.A. Affan, M.C. Kilgour, S.
     Kontos).  Human rights advocates may find most of the
     essays bland, and the range of viewpoints relatively
     limited.  A basic source, but should be read in
     conjunction with more critical perspectives such as MERIP
     (1991), Amnesty (1995) and others cited below.

Human Rights and Conflict

African Rights.  Sudan's Invisible Crimes: The Policy of Abuse
against Displaced People in the North.  London: African
Rights, February 1995. 60pp. ISBN 1-899477-01-2. BP5.95 or

     Well-documented study of forced removals and other abuses
     against the three to four million displaced people
     resident in northern Sudan, from both the south and the
     west.  Argues that their fate at the hands of the
     Sudanese government has been neglected both by Southern
     politicians and by international organizations.

+Amnesty International.  Sudan: 'The Tears of Orphans'-No
Future Without Human Rights.   (AI Index: AFR 54/02/95) New
York: AI, January 1995. 132pp. ISBN 0-939994-95-X. $8.

     Accessibly written and well-documented summary of human
     rights abuses in the North by the government and in the
     South by all parties to the conflict.  Argues that "the
     notion that the international community is doing all it
     can to exert pressure on the Sudan Government and both
     factions of the SPLA about human rights does not stand up
     to close examination."  A companion 12-page briefing,
     including color photographs (Sudan: What Future for Human
     Rights?) , presents a summary version of the same
     material, and sells for $5.

+Deng, Francis M.  "The Sudan: Stop the Carnage," pp. 7-11 in
The Brookings Review (Winter 1994).

     A concise statement of historical background and views on
     the current situation by the Southern Sudanese scholar
     and former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, an
     internationally respected diplomat now a senior fellow at
     the Brookings Institution.

The Fund for Peace, Human Rights/Horn of Africa Program,
Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities
for Human Rights in the Sudan.  New York: The Fund for Peace,
July 1995. 62pp.

     A series of edited reports by human rights activists inside
     Sudan, focusing on the situation in the Nuba Mountains and
     on various aspects of the situation of women.

Human Rights Watch/Africa.  Civilian Devastation: Abuses by
All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan.  New York: Human
Rights Watch, June 1994.  279pp.  ISBN 1-56432-129-0.  $20.

     The most recent book-length study by HRW/Africa,
     documenting human rights abuses by both government and
     rebel forces.  Includes thirty pages of summary and
     background (+).  Should be supplemented by other
     HRW/Africa reports, including two from November 1994:
     "'In the Name of God': Repression Continues in Northern
     Sudan" (41pp) and "The Lost Boys: Child Soldiers and
     Unaccompanied Boys in Southern Sudan" (25pp).

Khalid, Mansour, ed.  John Garang Speaks.  London and New
York: KPI Ltd., 1987.  147pp. ISBN 0-7103-02681 (paper).

     Key statements of position by the leader of the Sudan
     People's Liberation Movement (Mainstream), the principal
     opposition force in southern Sudan.

+Lesch, Ann Mosely.  "External Intervention in the Sudanese
Civil War," and "Negotiations in Sudan," pp. 79-138 in Smock,
David R., ed., Making War and Making Peace: Foreign
Intervention in Africa.  Washington: United States Institute
of Peace Press, 1993.

     Clearly written and well-informed factual background
     essays covering the period through 1991.

+Prendergast, John, Sudanese Rebels at a Crossroads:
Opportunities for Building Peace in a Shattered Land
(Discussion Paper #3).  Washington: Center of Concern, May
1994.  51pp.   $3.95.

     One of a series of discussion papers authored or co-
     authored by John Prendergast, raising issues of
     international and local responsibility for connecting
     relief, peace-making and responsibility for human rights.
     Prendergast presents the case that accountability and
     strengthening local institutions cannot wait for peace
     settlements, but must be built into the humanitarian
     involvement in the situation of conflict.  Other titles
     in the same series deal with the situation in the Nuba
     Mountains (October 1994) and Diplomacy, Aid and
     Governance in the Sudan (March 1995).  Write to the
     Center of Concern (address below) for a full list of
     publications on the Horn of Africa.

U.S. Institute of Peace.  Sudan: Ending the War, Moving Talks
Forward (Report of a USIP Seminar), April, 1994.  8pp.

     Report of seminar involving prominent Sudanese and
     others, with recommendations for supporting the
     Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development
     (IGADD) peace process.

Conflict and Famine

African Rights.  Great Expectations: The Civil Roles of the
Churches in Southern Sudan (Discussion Paper).  London:
African Rights, April 1995.  44pp. BP5.95 or $8.95.

     Argues that the involvement of church institutions in
     relief aid as well as conflict resolution, and their
     complicated relationships with different sectors of
     Sudanese society, should lead to caution against
     exaggerated hopes for their achievements in conflict
     resolution.  While church agencies should remain ready to
     facilitate negotiations between factions, they also need
     to be less reticent in calling attention to human rights
     abuses, and more ready to participate in international
     Christian-Islamic dialogue.

Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins.  Requiem for the
Sudan: War, Drought and Disaster Relief on the Nile.  Boulder:
Westview Press, 1995.  385pp.  ISBN 0-8133-2121-2 (paper)

     Focuses primarily on the war-related famine in southern
     Sudan, with much detail on the involvement of all parties
     to the conflict and relief operations.  More revealing
     than other sources on U.S. government reluctance to
     recognize the crisis and the efforts of those inside and
     outside the government who worked to overcome the
     barriers to action.

Deng, Francis M. and Larry Minear.  The Challenges of Famine
Relief: Emergency Operations in the Sudan.  Washington: The
Brookings Institution, 1992.  165pp.  ISBN 0-8157-1791-1.

     A study of the international response to the drought-
     induced famine in northern Sudan (1983-86) and to the
     conflict-related famine (1987-91) in the south.  Based
     on wide-ranging interviews by both co-authors.  Contains
     both overall praise for the level of humanitarian response and
     cautiously worded critiques of many of the faults and
     perverse impacts of large-scale foreign involvement by
     governments, multilateral institutions and NGOs.

+Duffield, Mark.  "Where Famine is Functional: Actual
Adjustment and the Politics of Relief in Sudan," pp. 27-30 in
Middle East Report (September-October 1991).  Washington:

     Analytical essay developing a critique of the "two-tier
     welfare" system of international relief and the use of
     large NGOs as "donor" government contractors bypassing
     local institutions.

Keen, David.  The Benefits of Famine: A Political Economy of
Famine and Relief in Southwestern Sudan, 1983-1989.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. 289pp.  ISBN 0-
691-03423-0. $39.50.

     Argues that "the real roots of famine may lie less in a
     lack of purchasing power within the market ... than in a
     lack of lobbying power within national (and
     international) institutions."  A strong and reasoned
     critique not only of powerholders in the Sudan but also
     of bilateral and multilateral donors as well as NGOs.
     Attacks international perceptions of 'acceptable' levels
     of violence or nutritional deficiencies.

Minear, Larry, in collaboration with T. A. Abuom, E. Chole, K.
Manibe, A. Mohammed, J. Sebstad and T. G. Weiss.
Humanitarianism under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation
Lifeline Sudan.  Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press and Washington:
Bread for the World Institute, 1991.  215pp.  ISBN 0-932415-
65-2.  $9.95.

     Review by an international team of NGO-linked researchers
     of this major coordinated relief operation, focusing on
     the period of its relative success in 1989.  Affirms the
     humanitarian precedent of protected relief corridors,
     while presenting significant critiques of structural

Islam and the State

+An-Na'im, Abdullahi A. and Peter N. Kok.  Fundamentalism and
Militarism: A Report on the Root Causes of Human Rights
Violations in the Sudan.  New York: The Fund for Peace Horn of
Africa Project, 1991.  39pp. $3.

     Clearly stated analysis by two prominent Sudanese lawyers
     and human rights activists.  Argues that "there are
     Sudanese from all parts of the country who are sensitive
     to past and present injustices and ... deeply concerned
     with gross and massive violations of human rights," that
     "the most fundamental fact about the Sudan is its ethnic
     and cultural diversity," and that "it is imperative that
     the much older traditions of mediation and peaceful
     coexistence prevail if the Sudanese are to survive in a
     prosperous and stable society with a country of their
     own."   See also the article by An-Na'im in Daly and
     Sikainga, eds. (above).

El-Affendi, Abdelwahab.  Turabi's Revolution: Islam and Power
in Sudan.  London: Grey Seal, 1991).  207pp.  ISBN 1-85640-

     A sympathetic history of the Muslim Brothers and the
     National Islamic Front (NIF), from the 1950s through the
     mid-1980s.  The book was completed before the June 1889
     coup which brought the current NIF-dominated military
     regime to power.

+Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn.  "Islamization in Sudan: A Critical
Assessment," pp. 71-89 in John O. Voll, ed., Sudan: State and
Society in Crisis (Bloomington, 1991).

     Brief summary of historical background, written shortly
     after the 1989 coup.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn.  "Movements for Reform or Restoration
of the Shari'a in the Sudan," Chapter 9 (pp. 238-277) in
Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Law and Society in the Sudan.
London: Frank Cass, 1987.

     While this book is probably too specialized for most
     readers, the chapter cited is of particular interest for
     showing the wide range of views and internal reform
     possibilities within the Islamic tradition in Sudan, far
     broader than the views associated with the Muslim
     Brotherhood and the current military regime.  It argues
     that significant change in the Islamic law (Shari'a) has
     in the past been carried out not primarily as a result of
     Western pressure but rather on internal Islamic grounds
     and in part from the initiative of women in particular.

Simone, T. Abdou Maliqalim.  In Whose Image?: Political Islam
and Urban Practices in Sudan.  Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1994.  272pp.  ISBN 0-226-75870-2 (paper).  $13.55.

     A unique study by a Muslim social psychologist from the
     City University of New York, based on sensitive
     participant observation in Khartoum among both Muslim and
     non-Muslim, Northern and Southern, communities.  Although
     academic language at times makes the text more difficult
     than necessary, the first-hand observations and concern
     for human rights and social reality as well as religious
     meaning and identity make this worth the extra effort.
     Concludes with a parallel consideration, also from first-
     hand involvement, of the role of progressive Muslim
     groups in South Africa's anti-apartheid struggle.

(part 2, continued in separate file)

This material is being posted by the Africa Policy Information
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role in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
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Washington Office on Africa (WOA), a not-for-profit church,
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