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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Sudan: Resource Guide (part 2)
Any links to other sites in this file from 1995 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Sudan: Resource Guide (part 2)
Date Distributed (ymd): 950926


Printed Magazines and Newsletters

Horn of Africa Bulletin.  Life & Peace Institute, S-751 70
Uppsala, Sweden. Tel: (46-18) 16-95- 00; Fax: (46-18) 69-30-
59; Email:  For hardcopy write for
subscription fees.  An electronic edition is available through
the University of Pennsylvania web site (see below), in the
lpi.hab conference on the APC networks, and on the Hornet BBS
(251-1-514534) in Addis Ababa.

     A comprehensive bimonthly summary of news and commentary
     from a wide variety of sources.  The Life & Peace
     Institute maintains an ongoing program related
     particularly to peace issues in the Horn of Africa.

Northeast African Studies.  Michigan State University Press,
1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, MI 48823-5202.  Tel:
(517) 355-9543; Fax: (517) 432-2611; Email:
Three times a year.  $30 a year for U.S. individuals; write
for other rates.

     The major North American academic journal covering the
     Horn of Africa.

Sudan Democratic Gazette, P.O. Box 2295, London W14 OND, UK.
Monthly.  11pp in English, 1p in Arabic.  US $60 or BP30/year.

     Edited and published in exile by Bona Malwal, a prominent
     Southern Sudanese journalist, political leader and former
     Cabinet minister.  Includes both detailed news and
     strongly expressed commentary on the political situation
     and peace process.

Sudan Focus, Focus International, P.O. Box 3751, London N1
8TE, UK.  Monthly.  Write for subscription rates.

     A monthly news publication, relatively sympathetic to the
     current Sudanese government.

Sudan Human Rights Voice.  Sudan Human Rights Organization
(see below).

Sudan Newsletter.  Scottish Churches' Sudan Group, c/o Marten,
4/6 Spylaw Road,  Edinburgh EH10 5BH, Scotland, UK. Fax:
(44-131) 228-3158.  Email: Monthly. BP10
in UK, BP15 overseas.

     Monthly newsletter, including articles, news items and
     announcements of events.  Abridged email version
     available free.

Sudan Update. BM Box "CPRS", London WC1N 3XX England Tel/Fax:
(44-01422) 845827. Email:  Twice

     "Recording news and comment on Sudanese affairs from all
     quarters to promote dialogue and education." Edited by
     Peter Verney.  Individual subscription is BP 25 a year.
     Write for other rates.

On-Line Information Sources

Note: The availability of on-line sources changes rapidly, and
many items are duplicated by different sources.  For recent
information consult the  reference list of Internet Resources
on the Horn of Africa compiled by Ben Parker
(   If you have access to the Web,
visit the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Web site
(, and check
the Sudan country page.  Within the Association for
Progressive Communications networks, check the africa.horn
conference and the lpi.hab conference.

NGO Networking Service Monthly Update. InterAfrica Group, P.O.
Box 1631, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  Tel: (251-1) 514575,  Fax:
(251-1) 517554,  E-mail

     Covers Sudan as well as other countries in the Horn.
     Provides information on recent meetings, statements and
     other news.  The InterAfrica Group's mission is "to
     advance humanitarian principles, peace and development in
     the Horn of Africa through research, dialogue, public
     education and advocacy."  IAG also publishes, less
     frequently, a print periodical called Humanitarian
     Monitor ($25/year).

Info-Soudan. Le Groupe D'Action Pour Le Soudan, 11 100,
Boulevard de l'Acadie, Montreal (Que) Canada H3M 2S8. Tel/fax:
(514) 331-9594 Email:

     Irregularly published news and analysis, posted in the
     africa.horn conference on Peacenet and other APC
     networks.  English version also available.

Sudan Infonet.  Maintained by William Lowrey as a meeting on
Ecunet; also available to other internet addresses by request

     A compilation of material, including church-related
     sources as well as a selection of other information.

Sudan-L.  Listserv maintained by Abdelmoneim Younis at Emory
University (

     Open forum for discussion and news.  To subscribe send
     the message "subscribe sudan-l" to  For information on two
     other discussion lists send email to Sudan-Cush- and

Sudan: News & Views. Editor: Dr. Yasin Miheisi. Email:  Fax: (44-181) 933-2870.

     Every two weeks.  "an independent (non-partisan,
     non-governmental) electronic publication based in London
     working to advocate peace, human rights and humanitarian
     aid for the Sudan."

Sudan Newsletter.  Scottish Churches' Sudan Group. Email:

     This is a monthly compilation of news items,
     approximately 3,000 words in length.  Request an email
     subscription by sending a message to

Sudan Update. Email:  Twice monthly.
Abridged version of printed publication is posted to selected
bulletin boards.  Available in response to email request.


As in the case of publications, this listing of non-
governmental organizations concerned with the Sudan is far
from comprehensive.  There are dozens of organizations, in the
U.S. alone, involved in relief work or advocacy connected to
Sudan.  Every effort was made to include a range of groups,
with particular emphasis on those located in the U.S. and
those most likely to have educational resources available on
an ongoing basis for a wider public.  For the sake of space,
contact information on groups already given in other sections
above is not repeated here.

International Coalitions and Human Rights Organizations

Amnesty International.  International Secretariat, 1 Easton
Street, London WC1X 8DJ UK. (Tel: 44-171-413-5500, Fax:
44-171-956-1157). Amnesty International USA, Publications
Department, 322 8th Ave., New York, NY 10001. Basic
information on Amnesty International is available by sending
a blank email message to

     AI, in addition to focusing on cases of individual
     prisoners and human rights abuses, conducts campaigns
     focused on situations in particular countries.  Sudan is
     currently one of their major campaign issues.  See
     publications above.

African Rights.  11 Marshalsea Road, London SE1 1EP, UK.  Tel:
(44-171) 717-1224.  Fax: (44-171) 717-1240.  Contacts: Rakiya
Omaar, Alex de Waal.

     African Rights distinguishes itself from other
     international human rights groups by stressing that "Any
     solution to Africa's problems must be sought primarily
     among Africans. ... African Rights tries to give a voice
     to Africans concerned with these pressing issues, and to
     press for more accountability from the international
     The organization's co-directors both have particular
     expertise in the Horn of Africa.  See publications above.

Coalition for Peace in the Horn of Africa, USA c/o Center of
Concern, Washington, D.C.
3700 13th Street, N.E., Washington, D.C., 20017, Tel: (202)
635-2757  x 32, Fax: (202) 832-9494, Email:
Contact: John Prendergast.

Horn of Africa Policy Group, c/o Canadian Council for
International Cooperation, 1 Nicholas St., Suite 300, Ottawa,
Ontario K1N 7B7, Canada.  Tel: 613-241-7007; Fax:
613-241-5302; Email: Contact: Beatrice

European Working Group on the Horn of Africa, c/o
DanChurchAid, Norregade 13, DK-1165 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Tel: 45-33-15-2800; Fax: 45-33-15-3860;
Email: or
Contact: Nils Carstensen.

     These three coalitions, based in the U.S., Canada, and
     Europe, are currently linked in an International Campaign
     for Peace in Sudan.  Each coalition includes a large
     number of relief, human rights, religious and other

Human Rights Watch/Africa, 1522 K Street, N.W. Washington, DC
20005.  Tel:  (202) 371-6592; Fax: (202) 371-0124 Email:  Contact: Janet Fleischman.  485 Fifth Ave.,
New York, NY 10017.  Tel: (212) 972-8400; Fax: (212) 972-
0905); email:

     HRW/Africa has consistently published detailed and well-
     documented reports on the human rights situation in
     Sudan.  See publications above.

Sudanese Non-Governmental Organizations

New Sudan Council of Churches. P.O. Box 52802, Nairobi, Kenya.
Tel: (254-2) 446-966, Fax:  (254-2) 44715: Email: nscc- Contact:  Dr. Haruun Runn, Executive Secretary.

     A council of both Protestant and Catholic churches in
     southern Sudan, engaged in relief and rehabilitation work
     and grassroots peacemaking efforts.  The chair is
     Catholic  Bishop Daniel Zindo.

Pax Sudani Network.  P.O. Box 15118, Cleveland, OH 44115 or
P.O. Box 24233, Lansing, MI 48909.  Contact: David Nailo M.

     "A charitable organization committed to the rights and
     liberties of African Sudanese people." Publishes Sudan
     Newsletter, $12/year for individuals, $20/year for

Sudan Council of Churches.  Inter-Church House, St. 35, New
Extension, POB 469, Khartoum, Sudan.  Tel: (11) 42859.

     The council of Protestant and Catholic churches operating
     in government-controlled areas of Sudan.

Sudan Human Rights Organization. BH Box 8238, London WC1N 3XX
England, Tel: (044-171) 587-1586, Fax: (044-171) 587-1298.
Contact: Yassin Bakkar.

     This London-based group publishes a monthly newsletter,
     Sudan Human Rights Voice.  An annual subscription is BP10
     for individuals, BP20 for organizations.

Sudanese Study Center, Cairo.  35 Champollion, Flat 12, Cairo,
Egypt  Tel: (20-2) 769878. Fax: (20-2) 3931492.

     Engaged in research on culture diversity, nation building
     and Islam in the Sudan and the Horn of Africa.

Other Organizations with an Ongoing Focus on Sudan

Association of Christian Resource Organizations Serving
Sudan(ACROSS). P.O. Box 21033, Nairobi, Kenya.  Tel: (254-2)
723-680; Fax: (254-2) 726-509 ; Email:

     Coalition of Protestant groups involved in relief,
     rehabilitation and church partnership  work in the
     southern Sudan.

Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20036-2188.  Tel: (202) 797-6000,  Fax: (202)
797-6195.  Contact: Francis Deng.

     Brookings is the institutional base for Sudanese scholar
     and diplomat Francis Deng.

Fund for Peace, Horn of Africa Program
823 United Nations Plaza, Suite 717, New York, NY, 10017.
Tel:  (212) 661-5900, Fax: (212) 661-5904; Email:  Contact: Leah Leatherbee.

     Provides technical and financial assistance to groups
     working to protect and promote human rights.
     Publications include the pamphlet by An-Na'im and Kok
     (above) and Living on the Margin, a collection of
     reports written by Sudanese human rights
     activists.  Write for a full publications list.

Africa Faith and Justice Network, P.O. Box 29378, Washington,
DC 20017.  Tel: (202) 832-3412; Fax: (202) 832-9051); Email:

Maryknoll Society Justice and Peace Office, P.O. Box 29132,
Washington, D.C., 20017.  Tel: (202) 832-1780; Fax: (202) 832-
5195; Email: Contact: Terence Miller.

Presbyterian Church (USA) Washington Office, 110 Maryland
Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20002.  Tel: (202) 543-1126, Fax:
(202) 543-7755.  Contact: William Lowrey, Sudan Desk
Associate, home office Tel/Fax: (703) 938-6279, Email:

     Three of the many U.S. church-related groups with an
     ongoing concern about the Sudan.  For more church-related
     information in particular see on-line information sources

Sudan Studies Association.  Contact: Executive Director Malik
Balla, c/o African Studies Center, 100 Center for
International Studies, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1035.  Tel: (517) 353-6656.  Fax: (517) 432-
2736.  Email:

     Association for academic study of the Sudan, founded in
     1981.  Publishes a newsletter, Sudan News, and organizes
     annual meetings with wide variety of participants.  The
     1994 meeting was held in Boston in conjunction with the
     Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of
     Khartoum and the Sudan Sudies Association of the United
     Kingdom, with the theme "The Sudan: History, Polity and
     Identity in a Time of Crisis."  The 1995 meeting was held
     in Philadelphia, with the theme "Conflict and Conflict
     Resolution in the Sudan."  For availability of papers and
     membership information please contact the Executive

U.S. Committee for Refugees,  1717 Massachusetts Ave., NW,
Suite 701, Washington, DC 20005.  Tel: (202) 347-3507, Fax:
(202) 347-3418; Email:  Contacts: Roger
Winter, Jeff Drumtra.

     With an ongoing concern for the Sudan, the USCR is a good
     source of current information.  Several earlier published
     reports were written by Millard Burr, author of the
     comprehensive study cited above.

U.S. Institute of Peace, 1550 M St., NW, Suite 700,
Washington, DC 20005.  Tel: (202) 457-1700, Fax: (202) 429-
6063, Email: or
Contact: David Smock.

     The U.S. Institute of Peace is an independent,
     nonpartisan institution funded by the U.S. government to
     "strengthen the nation's capacity to promote the peaceful
     resolution of international conflict."  It has sponsored
     consultations and publications on the Sudan (see above).


Official Name Republic of Sudan.

Area.  967,500 sq. mi. (2,505,813 sq. km.), as large as the
United States east of the Mississippi river.

Population. 25.9 million (est. 1992), roughly the same as

Date of Independence. January 1, 1956.

Capital. Khartoum.  With companion cities Omdurman and
Khartoum North, and surrounding resettlement areas, estimates
for the three towns go as high as five million people, up from
1.3 million reported in the 1983 census.

Other Major Cities. North: Port Sudan (est. 1990, 215,000) Wad
Medani (est. 1990, 155,000).  South: Juba (est. 1990 over
150,000), Malakal (est. 1990 over 100,000), Wau (est. 1990
over 100,000).

Geographical Features.  The most prominent physical feature is
the Nile. The Blue Nile, coming from Ethiopia, contributes
most of the water; much of the White Nile flow is lost in the
swampy regions of the Sudd area.  From Khartoum, where the two
meet, the Nile propoer flows north to Egypt.  Away from the
Nile most of the territory consists of vast arid or semiarid
plains that rise gradually to the east, south, and west.  The
soil is rich in agricultural potential, but the limiting
factor is water.  Rainfall is higher towards the south, and
more reliably watered rangeland in the southwest provides
seasonal resources for cattle-herders further north.

Official Language. Arabic (spoken mostly in the North) is the
official language and dominant lingua franca.  English, used
in education in the South and spoken among educated southern
Sudanese, has also been used in higher education in the North.

Other Major Languages. The number of languages spoken is
estimated at more than 100, but only a few are spoken by more
than small groups. Dinka is spoken by about 10% of Sudanese
(40% of the South); Beja by about 7%, and Nuer by about 3%.
Very many Sudanese are bilingual.

Major Subsistence Resources. Millet is the principal food
crop.  Despite devastation of herds by drought and war,
cattle, sheep and goats are fundamental to the economy in much
of the country.  For much of the urban population, remittances
from family members working outside the country are primary
sources of income.

Major Commercial Resources. Oil was discovered in southwestern
Sudan in the early 1980s, but production plans have so far
been blocked by war.  Major export products include cotton,
sesame, gum arabic and livestock products.

Gross National Product. $10.1 billion (est. 1991), ranked 7th
in Africa, 3rd in sub-Saharan Africa.

Real Gross Domestic Product per Capita. $1,620 (1992), ranked
21st in Africa, 16th in sub-Saharan Africa, roughly 7% of the
U.S. level.

Education Profile.  Literacy (est. 1992, 28% of adult
population).  The number of primary students was estimated at
fifty percent of those in the primary age group in 1990; for
the secondary level the enrollment ratio was estimated at 22%.
The University of Khartoum is the major university, with an
estimated 12,000 students in 1990.

Health Profile.  Life expectancy in 1992 was estimated at
51.2, while the Under 5 Mortality Rate was 160 per thousand,
the average for sub-Saharan Africa.  There was one doctor for
every 11,100 people.  Large areas have no health services at

Religious Affiliations. An estimated 60 to 65% of Sudanese are
Muslim; estimates of the number of Christians range from 4% to
10% (mostly in the South).  The remainder hold to traditional
beliefs.  Muslim religious affiliation correlates with, but is
not identical to, linguistic or ethnic identification as
"Arab."  Estimates of Sudanese who identify themselves as Arab
range widely, from 30% to over 50%.

Note: Given the difficulty of obtaining reliable statistics,
all the above figures should be taken  as estimates.  Sources
include publications cited in this guide as well as UNDP,
Human Development Report 1994 and 1995.

The typeset version of this resource guide, 8 pages including
map, is available at $2 each, $1.60 each for 20 or more.  Add
15% for postage and handling.  May be freely reproduced with
attribution to APIC.

This series of background papers is part of a program of
public education funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New
York, The Ford Foundation, and The John D. and Catherine T.
MacArthur Foundation.

This material is being posted by the Africa Policy Information
Center (APIC). APIC's primary objective is to widen the policy
debate in the United States around African issues and the U.S.
role in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
policy-relevant information and analysis usable by a wide
range of groups and individuals.  APIC is affiliated with the
Washington Office on Africa (WOA), a not-for-profit church,
trade union and civil rights group supported organization that
works with Congress on Africa-related legislation.


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