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This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Excerpts from UN Report
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Angola: Excerpts from UN Report
Date Distributed (ymd): 950729

UNITED NATIONS S/1995/588 17 July 1995


                II.  POLITICAL ASPECTS

2.   Despite significant delays, the Angolan peace process
has made steady progress since the adoption of Security
Council resolution 976 (1995).  The general atmosphere of
mistrust between the Government and the Uniao Nacional para
a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA) is diminishing,
particularly since the meeting in Lusaka on 6 May 1995
between the President of Angola, Mr. Jose Eduardo dos
Santos, and the President of UNITA, Mr. Jonas Savimbi.

6.   Since the meeting between President dos Santos and Mr.
Savimbi in Lusaka, high-level contacts between members of
the Government and UNITA have intensified.  On 25 May, the
Government delegation to the Joint Commission travelled to
Bailundo, where the UNITA headquarters is currently located,
to deliver a message to Mr. Savimbi from President dos
Santos.  In addition, President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi
have been in regular contact by telephone.  ...

7.   On 16 June, the Central Committee of the ruling
Movimento Popular para a Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) offered
Mr. Savimbi one of two positions of Vice-President, with the
other to be held by a senior member of MPLA.  If such posts
were to be created, the Constitution of Angola would have to
be amended and the prerogatives of the two posts carefully

8.   In late June, a high-level UNITA delegation visited
Luanda to review with the Government the practical
modalities for accelerating the implementation of the Lusaka
Protocol.  The review culminated in a comprehensive working
document signed by the two parties and submitted to the
Joint Commission.  The document is currently being reviewed
by UNAVEM and the three observer States for submission to
the Joint Commission for adoption.

9.   In order to review the progress made so far and to
assess the situation on the ground, I visited Angola from 14
to 16 July. ...


A. Observance of the cease-fire

11.  The deployment of United Nations military and police
observers throughout the country since the adoption of
resolution 976 (1995) and the gradual induction of formed
units have contributed to improved respect for the

12.  The same number of cease-fire violations were recorded
in May and June (137 each).  These violations were recorded
in particular in northern parts of the provinces of Huila,
Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malange, Moxico and Zaire.  All
incidents have been investigated by UNAVEM, but the Mission
has not so far reported a major breach of the peace.  ...

B.  Disengagement and demining

13.  Progress continues to be slow in troop disengagement,
demining and the establishment of quartering areas.  Until
recently, UNITA insisted that no further disengagement of
troops should take place until the Government withdrew from
the areas it had reoccupied in the provinces of Huambo and
Uige.  However, the two parties have now agreed to keep
their troops in situ until UNITA troops move to quartering
areas and government troops move to barracks.  At the same
time, substantial improvement has been registered in the
establishment of triangular communications between the
Angolan parties and UNAVEM III.  ...

14.  As I stressed in previous reports to the Council, the
demining and rehabilitation of major routes is a vital task
that will affect almost every aspect of the peace process
(deployment of United Nations troops, free circulation of
people, extension of the central administration, quartering
of troops, etc.).  After unfortunate delays, the Government
and UNITA have begun essential demining activities
throughout the country, with the cooperation of UNAVEM, the
United Nations Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit
(UCAH) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).  While
some mine-clearing equipment has been procured by the
Government, a great deal more is needed.  Notwithstanding
recent efforts, the pace of mine clearance has remained
slow.  In the meantime, mines continue to be a major hazard
for the Angolan population and UNAVEM and humanitarian
personnel.  ...

15.  The timely establishment of quartering areas for the
demobilization of UNITA troops, the withdrawal of the
Angolan rapid reaction police and FAA troops to their
barracks and strengthening of the logistic infrastructure
for the unified national army will be of crucial importance
for the success of the peace process.  UNAVEM, together with
UCAH and the humanitarian agencies concerned, has conducted
a thorough reconnaissance of most of the designated areas.
A strenuous effort is under way to establish at least 4 of
the planned 14 such sites within the next few weeks in the
strategically important Northern and Central regions. ...

C.  Efforts by the parties towards implementation of the
Lusaka Protocol

16.  In a very promising development, high-level government
and UNITA delegations met in Luanda from 19 June to 1 July
to discuss several crucial issues concerning implementation
of the Lusaka Protocol.  The agenda of these intensive talks
included the following issues:  quartering of UNITA forces;
return of FAA to barracks; incorporation of UNITA troops
into the national armed forces; reopening of roads and free
circulation of people and goods; disarmament of the civilian
population; repatriation of mercenaries; clarification of
the amnesty law; and preparations for further high-level
meetings in Luanda.  Decisions were reached on most of these
questions and the parties approved a timetable to make up
for the delays that have occurred so far.  They agreed on
almost all quartering locations and the sequence of the
quartering process, on basic conditions for assembly areas,
on the modalities of the FAA withdrawal to barracks and on
the need to eliminate checkpoints and organize additional
humanitarian road convoys to formerly inaccessible areas.
However, certain aspects, e.g. the incorporation of UNITA
troops with FAA, require further consideration, and the two
delegations were to meet again in Luanda on 11 July.

UNAVEM deployment and strength

17.  As of 4 July, in addition to the 6 regional
headquarters, 337 military observers of UNAVEM have been
deployed to 55 sites throughout Angola; deployment in five
new sites will commence soon.  The recent arrival of a
helicopter unit will accelerate the establishment of new
observation sites and has greatly increased the Mission's
capability to deliver supplies and carry out medical
evacuations.  Deployment of United Nations formed units,
whose total strength has reached 1,970 personnel, is
generally proceeding in accordance with the adjusted
time-frame set out in my previous report.  Elements of the
Uruguayan battalion and the Indian engineer squadron have
reached Huambo overland and established their headquarters
there; at least two more United Nations infantry battalions,
from India and Zimbabwe, will be deployed to Angola in July
and the one from Romania in mid-August.  ... delays on the
part of some troop contributors in deploying their troops to
Angola continue to have adverse effects on this carefully
planned operation.


19.  The civilian police component (CIVPOL), which was
authorized by Security Council resolution 976 (1995), has
proved to be an indispensable element in UNAVEM's efforts to
implement the Lusaka Protocol.  As of 4 July, 209 civilian
police observers from 19 countries had been deployed to 29
teamsites throughout Angola, including most provincial
capitals.  An additional 51 police observers are expected to
be inducted by September, which would bring the strength of
the component to the authorized level of 260 personnel. ...

20.  CIVPOL continued to pursue actively its tasks as set
out in my report of 1 February (S/1995/97) and in my most
recent progress report (S/1995/458).  It reports that the
situation in most of the country is fairly calm and
complaints about the conduct of the national police have
been relatively few. However, despite the improving level of
cooperation, the United Nations is often denied access to
important information regarding the Angolan national police
units, the strength and deployment of the rapid reaction
police and the military equipment in its possession.  ...

22.  The Angolan parties have been registering complaints
about human rights violations with my Special Representative
and with the Joint Commission.  In response to these
complaints, and in accordance with the provisions of
resolution 976 (1995), UNAVEM established a small sub-unit
to deal with human rights issues and observe implementation
of the relevant provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.  Pending
approval by the General Assembly of the full budget of
UNAVEM III and the establishment of the necessary posts,
five human rights specialists from Denmark, France and
Portugal were temporarily placed at UNAVEM's disposal by the
European Union.  The work of these experts, who have been
deployed to several regions, has proved very useful, and it
is my intention to increase the strength of this unit by up
to 11 personnel so that a human rights monitor can be
stationed in almost all the 18 provinces of Angola.  ...


23.  Despite formidable difficulties, the humanitarian
situation in Angola has continued to improve since February
1995, as a direct result of the peace process and the
expanded presence of the United Nations in the country.

24.  In addition to their psychological impact, the road
convoys led by my Special Representative from Luanda to
Lobito and from Uige to Negage have facilitated humanitarian
activities by making new areas accessible by road and
reducing the need for costly deliveries by air.  Thus, for
the first time since 1992, the World Food Programme (WFP)
was able in June to dispatch road convoys from Lobito to
Sumbe and from Lobito to Huambo and Kuito.  ...

25.  The Humanitarian Coordination Group, which is
co-chaired by the Minister of Social Affairs and the UCAH
Director and includes representatives of UNITA, United
Nations agencies, the observer and donor countries, the
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and NGOs,
meets in Luanda on a weekly basis.  Its meeting on 14 June,
the first to be held outside Luanda, was convened in
Bailundo, with strong UNITA representation.  This event
marked an important step towards building confidence and
facilitating the provision of humanitarian assistance.
Another significant development in humanitarian cooperation
was the initiation of plans for the resettlement of some
40,000 displaced persons residing in Jamba, whom UNITA had
requested the Angolan Government and the United Nations to
help to return to their places of origin and reintegrate
themselves into their communities.

26.  Since the adoption of resolution 976 (1995) in
February, the humanitarian programme has continued to
expand.  Recent assessment missions have found severe
deficiencies in health services, clothing and basic food
items in some regions.  At the same time, progress has been
made in launching joint humanitarian initiatives in areas
currently under the control of both parties, in which
government agencies, UNITA and the United Nations are now
working together. ...

27.  The demobilization and reintegration section of the
United Nations humanitarian appeal for Angola, which was
issued in January 1995, has been readjusted in view of
recent agreements between the parties.  The revised
demobilization and reintegration programme will require
funding amounting to US$ 92.9 million, of which US$ 48.1
million will be needed for the first and crucial phase
(i.e., the quartering of UNITA soldiers) and US$ 44.8
million for subsequent phases.

28.  Prior experience with demobilization in Angola and
elsewhere indicates that a comprehensive strategy and the
timely and coordinated provision of donor funding will be
indispensable for the success of this exercise.  Now that
the requisite strategy for Angola has been elaborated, it is
critical to secure the necessary funds, in addition to other
resources that will be appropriated through UNAVEM III's


29.  The economic and social situation in Angola continues
to be extremely precarious, owing mainly to the devastating
effects of several decades of civil conflict.  The following
data reflect the enormous difficulties facing Angola during
this period of transition:  up to 70 per cent of the basic
health system has been destroyed; only 18 per cent of the
population has access to sanitation and 34 per cent to safe
water; the infant mortality rate is 195 per 1,000; the food
deficit in 1995 is expected to be approximately 360,000
tons; approximately 70,000 people have been mutilated by
weapons and/or mines; 1.2 million internally displaced
persons, 300,000 refugees in neighbouring countries and 3.2
million other people are in need of emergency humanitarian
assistance.  The debt/export ratio of the country has
reached 365 per cent, and the estimated gross domestic
product per capita has fallen to US$ 410, which represents
half that of 1990.  Military spending in 1994 was estimated
to be 39 per cent of the State budget, while the inflation
rate was 1,838 per cent in 1993 and 972 per cent in 1994.

32.  On the strength of some positive developments in
economic reform and in the peace process, the World Bank is
developing plans to support Angola's reconstruction efforts.
This enhanced support will include financing for emergency
reconstruction and structural adjustment programmes, as well
as a fund to support community-based initiatives for the
rehabilitation of social infrastructure and
income-generating activities.  In addition, with the
participation of United Nations agencies, a debt strategy
for Angola is being prepared, as are programmes for the
divestiture of public companies and streamlining of public

33.  The Government of Angola, with support from UNDP and my
Special Representative, has organized a round table for
rehabilitation and community development, to be held in
September 1995.  The round-table programme, which will
require up to US$ 620 million to implement, will also serve
as the overall reference point for United Nations agencies.
It contains detailed rehabilitation plans for all provinces
with a focus on small-scale infrastructure projects capable
of delivering direct and immediate benefits to millions of
people.  ...

               VIII.  OBSERVATIONS


38.  Of the most pressing tasks that lie ahead, many have
been highlighted in the adjusted implementation plan.  At
the same time, a comprehensive, fair and workable programme
for the formation of the new armed forces should be adopted
without further delay.  ...

39.  Humanitarian assistance plays an important role in
consolidating the Angolan peace process, especially in the
demobilization and reintegration exercise, which will rely
largely on external resources to support the demobilized
UNITA troops and their dependants.  Although many donors
have expressed interest, less than 1 per cent of the
voluntary funds sought for this purpose under the 1995
humanitarian appeal has been contributed to date.  Now that
the promising events of the last two months have improved
the prospects for an early start to quartering and
demobilization, I very much hope that donors will respond
with generous and timely financial contributions to the
humanitarian effort.  Equally, I appeal to Member States to
provide much-needed mine clearance, bridging and road repair
equipment and materials and other supplies necessary for
setting up the quartering areas.

40.  In these more encouraging circumstances, I recommend
that the mandate of UNAVEM III be extended for a period of
six months, that is until 8 February 1996.  In order to keep
the Security Council fully informed of developments, I
intend to submit a comprehensive report every two months.

Note: the full text of this report can be found, via gopher
or web, at:

This material is being reposted for wider distribution
by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's
primary objective is to widen the policy debate in the
United States around African issues and the U.S. role
in Africa, by concentrating on providing accessible
policy-relevant information and analysis usable by a
wide range of groups and individuals.  APIC is
affiliated with the Washington Office on Africa (WOA),
a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil rights
group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.


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