news analysis advocacy
tips on searching

Search AfricaFocus and 9 Partner Sites



Visit the AfricaFocus
Country Pages

Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Central Afr. Rep.
Congo (Brazzaville)
Congo (Kinshasa)
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
São Tomé
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan
Western Sahara

Get AfricaFocus Bulletin by e-mail!

Print this page

Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 5
Any links to other sites in this file from 1996 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 5
Date Distributed (ymd): 960130

Angola Peace Monitor

Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency

Issue no.5 Volume II, 29 January 1996

UNITA under pressure for action as US envoy waves stick

Madeleine Albright, the US ambassador to the United Nations,
has sent a clear signal to Angola that US patience is
running out over the slow progress towards a peaceful
settlement in Angola. Following major government concessions
during President dos Santos' visit to Washington in
December, UNITA is now under intense US pressure to honour
its pledges to quarter its troops.

Ms Albright was on a three day visit to the country,
beginning on 18 January. During her visit she met with,
among others, President dos Santos, Prime Minister Marcolino
Moco, and UN Special Representative Alioune Blondin Beye.
She also travelled to Bailundo to meet with UNITA leader
Jonas Savimbi.

The US ambassador received assurances from Savimbi that
UNITA would speed up the quartering of its troops (see
below). However, in a statement quoted in the London-based
journal Southscan, she said "I have to tell you that the
international community is running out of patience ... I
even fear that, if the promise that was made to me by Mr
Savimbi today is not realised, the international community
may say: It is enough. A total of $1m is spent daily in this
country. So this country's leaders must take advantage of
this opportunity."

Madeleine Albright will assume the position of President of
the UN Security Council in February.

UNITA restart quartering of troops as UN deadline approaches

An ambitious target for the quartering of rebel troops has
been set by UNITA, signalling the end of last year's
suspension of cantonment. The deadline was set to coincide
with the United Nations Security Council meeting in New York
on 8 February, which will consider the whole future of the

On 19 January UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi, pledged to
confine 16,500 troops by 8 February, which also marks the
anniversary of the creation of UNAVEM III. UNITA's
conference increased the pledge to 20,000, as long as UNAVEM
could provide the necessary logistics.

UNITA had suspended the confinement of troops on 4 December
1995 following military clashes between Government and UNITA
troops around the town of Sumba in the northern province of
Zaire. The confinement of UNITA personnel had begun in late
November, and the Angolan Government had complained of the
slow pace of quartering, and that those troops confined were
"boy soldiers with unserviceable weapons" (see APM 3,II). By
4 December only 363 UNITA troops had been quartered.

The confinement of troops restarted on 17 January at the
Tchikala-Tcholohanga assembly areas (formerly Vila Nova) in
the central Huambo province. Televisao Popular de Angola is
quoted as stating that on 23 January 75 UNITA personnel had
been quartered, bringing the total to 660. The South African
Press Association (SAPA) reported on 25 January that a total
of 693 soldiers had been quartered. Estimates of the total
number of UNITA troops vary widely. SAPA reports that UNITA
have 63,000 troops.

One unconfirmed source in Luanda reported to ACTSA that
UNITA officers have received orders to demobilise a whole
brigade, including heavy armour.

UNITA annual conference agrees to continue with peace

UNITA have confirmed that they will continue with the
implementation of the peace process, following decisions
made at their annual conference in Bailundo. However, the
conference, which was extended by over a week until 25
January, created new conditions for its continued

UNITA decided that it will participate in the Government
structures agreed under the Lusaka Protocol, which gives
them the following positions:

4 cabinet ministers 7 deputy ministers 6 ambassadors 3
provincial governors 6 deputy provincial governors 20
municipal administrators 25 deputy municipal administrators
45 communal administrators

UNITA has stated that it will only join the Government if a
common platform to deal with the social and economic crisis
can be agreed. Furthermore, it has demanded that its members
are not forced to leave the party, and that the "ban" on
UNITA and its activities be lifted.

On the question of quartering UNITA troops, the conference
demanded that the Angolan Army, FAA, should be returned to
barracks. This is a new condition, as the Lusaka Protocol
only requires the FAA to remain in situ, and not to occupy
areas held by UNITA.

Joint Committee ask for plans

The Joint Committee, which oversees the peace process, met
on 25 January and requested that UNITA provide a plan of
their needs for quartering.

Riot police quartered

The Government has met another condition in the Lusaka
Protocol by ordering the return to base of the Rapid
Intervention Police. The anti-riot squads began their return
to base on 10 January, with a movement to three bases in

The anti-riot squad has now also returned to bases in Uige
and Huambo. By 26 January 2,000 of these police officers had
returned to base, completing the first phase of the
confinement process.

Executive Outcomes contract ended

Military advisers from the South African organisation
Executive Outcomes have left Angola following the
termination of their Government contract. It has been
rumoured that Executive Outcomes personnel have now been
redeployed to Sierra Leone.

Military actions continue

Following the military clashes in Zaire Province in
December, many areas of the country have seen a reduction in
tensions, whilst military action has continued in others.

The London-based journal Southscan reported on 5 January
that UNAVEM has moved some of its Zimbabwean peace-keepers
to the two most contested areas, Sumba, 40km east of Soyo,
and Mango Grande, 40km south. Concern has been expressed
that the movement of UNAVEM troops to the area will weaken
their presence in other areas.

The Government has agreed to remove its troops from areas
taken during fighting with UNITA, but only in order for UN
peace-keepers to take over. The Government justification for
the military actions in December was that UNITA was using
those areas to launch attacks on the strategically important
oil town of Soyo.

Troops have already been removed from some of the areas
retaken by the Government.

The Angolan Government has also come under criticism from
the United Nations over the capture of Kitoke in Uige
province during the Christmas period.

Killings continue

The London-based magazine, West Africa, reported on 8
January that unknown assailants assassinated the Governor of
Bengo province on New Year's Eve. Domingos Hungo was
travelling to his brother's house in Luanda when he was shot
and killed.

It was also reported in Southscan on 12 January, that during
the previous week UNITA had attacked civilians in Huila
province. The Governor of Huila, Kundi Payama, said that
UNITA had massacred 50 civilians, and the Mayor of a Huila
village said that UNITA had axed 15 civilians to death.

Summit postponed

A meeting between President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and
Jonas Savimbi is reportedly still being arranged following
the breakdown in the latest arrangements.

The two were due to meet on 20 January. However, the meeting
was cancelled by Savimbi. The Angolan Government had wanted
to meet on Angolan territory. However, a Lisbon radio
station reported on 19 January that the proposed venue was
in Gabon. It appears that President dos Santos may have
conceded meeting outside Angola during his visit to

There have been three previous meetings between President
dos Santos and Savimbi. None of these have been in Angola as
Savimbi claims to be unhappy with the security situation.

British aid minister set for Luanda

It is understood that Britain's Minister for Overseas
Development, Baroness Chalker, is likely to visit Angola in
mid-February, though the Foreign Office will not yet
officially confirm this. The visit would be both to assess
the current progress on the peace process, given Britain's
role as a permanent member of the Security Council, and the
need for aid for reconstruction

The UK failed to pledge aid at the Brussels Donors' Round
Table on Angola in September 1995 (see APM 1, vol II), where
potential aid cuts stymied the ability of the Overseas
Development Administration to pledge aid. It is understood
that the visit could augur a British aid pledge - though for
what and on what scale is not known.

Government protests over Zaire flights

The Government of Angola has increased its protests over the
continuing use of Zaire as a conduit for the movement of
military men and materials.

The Government handed over a formal protest to the Zairean
Government on 22 December, and wrote to the
Secretary-General of the Organisation of African Unity on
the same day, following a plane crash on Angolan territory.
The fatal crash, which resulted in the deaths of 139
Angolans, originated in Zaire. The Angolan Government
claimed that the plane was being used to move weapons and
personnel belonging to UNITA.

In a statement, UNITA admitted that the aircraft Electra,
owned by Trans Service Airlift, was chartered by UNITA.
However, it claims that the plane was carrying evacuees from

Angola's Ambassador to the UN also wrote to the UN Security
Council's Sanctions Committee on 3 January, condemning
Zaire's violation of paragraphs 19 and 20 of Resolution 864
adopted in September 1993.

 UN Committee on UNITA arms admits failure

The UN Committee established to oversee the implementation
of the arms embargo against UNITA has admitted that its
effectiveness is dependent upon the cooperation of the
states concerned.

The Committee was set up to monitor the mandatory sanctions
against UNITA relating to the sale or supply of arms and
related material, as well as of petroleum and petroleum
products. It also had the task of reporting violations to
the Security Council and to make observations and

In its report, dated 17 January, the committee stated that
its activities had been to:

- send letters on 15 November 1993 to Botswana, Congo,
Namibia, South Africa, Zaire and Zambia to ask for

- send letters on 19 November 1993 to Namibia, South Africa,
Zaire and Zambia regarding allegations of violations;

- prepare a report to the Security Council on 14 July 1994.

The Committee states that since it was formed, it has
"experienced difficulty in obtaining information on alleged
violations of the mandatory sanctions with respect to UNITA.
As is the case with similar arms embargoes imposed by the
Security Council, the effectiveness of the Committee would
continue to depend on the cooperation of Member States in a
position to provide information on possible violations".

Meanwhile, the organisation Human Rights Watch/Africa is to
publish a report on 6 February detailing the continued use
of Zaire as a conduit for the breaking of the arms embargo

The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to
the British Anti-Apartheid Movement.

It is produced as our contribution towards the work of the
Angola Emergency Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need
for international action in support of peace and democracy
in Angola.

A years subscription to the Angola Peace Monitor is
available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and 15
pounds sterling elsewhere. Please indicate whether you wish
to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post, fax, or e-mail.
A full set of back issues is available at an additional cost
of 2 pounds sterling. Payment should be made in pounds
sterling. If you wish to pay in any other currency, you must
add the equivalent of 6 pounds sterling to cover our bank

ACTSA, 28 Penton Street, London N1 9SA, e-mail, fax +44 171 837 3001, telephone
+44 171 833 3133.

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and
individuals. APIC is affiliated with the Washington Office on
Africa (WOA), a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil
rights group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.


URL for this file: