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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 8
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Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 8
Date Distributed (ymd): 960501

Angola Peace Monitor
Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign,
Issue no.8, Volume II, 29 April 1996
Envoys extract promises from Savimbi as deadline

UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi has met with a series of high
level delegations in which he gave assurances that the
implementation of the peace process would be speeded up
in the run up to the United Nations Security Council
meeting on 8 May to decide whether to continue with its
peacekeeping operation in Angola.

The US Presidential Special Representative, Paul Hare
and US Ambassador Donald Steinberg; the British
Ambassador, Roger Hart; and the UN Secretary General's
Special Representative in Angola, Alioune Blondin Beye,
all went to Andulo on 25 April, and met separately with
Jonas Savimbi.

According to sources in Luanda, the dignatories
extracted assurances that at least 30,000, and possibly
even 35,000, UNITA troops would be quartered by 8 May,
the date when the UN Security Council meet in New York
to discuss the future of the UN mission in Angola. The UNITA
leader also gave assurances that the quality of weapons handed
in to United Nations officials at the camps would improve.

Ambassador Hart, who delivered a letter from Baroness
Chalker to Mr Savimbi, told ACTSA that he was cautiously
hopeful that 30,000 UNITA troops would be quartered by
the deadline. In particular he noted that UNITA should
not encounter logistical problems in getting their
troops to the camps as they have many troops in the
immediate vicinity.

However, he also said that even if 30,000 UNITA troops
were quartered, this would only represent half of
UNITA's troops and that much more still needed to be
achieved if the schedule agreed between President Dos
Santos and Jonas Savimbi in Gabon on 1 March was to be

It is expected that the mandate for the UN mission will
only be renewed for three months or less to maintain the
pressure on UNITA. It is unclear whether any discussion
will take place at the Security Council meeting over the
implementation of existing sanctions on UNITA.

Patience strained over UNITA's failure to quarter its

Both international and internal goodwill is fast
disappearing as UNITA once again has failed to send
substantial numbers of its armed forces to be quartered
and disarmed prior to their demobilisation.

The second phase of the confinement of UNITA troops
began on 25 March, with personnel moving into Ngove,
Ntuco and Quibala quartering areas. The latest net
figure, including deaths and desertions, was 20,900 on
26 April. As of 17 April 22,000 troops had been
quartered in the following areas:

Vila Nova        5,007
Londuimbali      5,202
Negage           5,008
Quibaxe          2,148
Quibala            931
Ngove            3,177
Ntuco              519

UN rejects UNITA leader's criticisms of conditions

UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi, has complained of a lack of
medicines, tents and food, and that "the UN have not
positively fulfilled their promises".

This viewpoint was vigorously rejected by the UN
Secretary General's Special Representative in Angola,
Alioune Blondin Beye. He said on Televisiao Popular de
Angola on 21 March that "the international community has
established adequate conditions in the confinement
centres - at a very high financial cost and with great
sacrifice. We visited the areas and found them suitable
and acceptable. They have clean water, tents and food,
according to universal norms. The soldiers have three
meals a day, medicine, doctors and nurses. I therefore
believe it is not fair to accuse the international
community of bad faith. These accusations are baseless".

He went on to add that "people should therefore not use
this as a pretext to justify other actions. It is not
fair. I strongly oppose this tendency".

Head of UN warns of poor quantity and quality of those

The UN Secretary General, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in his
report to the Security Council on 4 April (S/1996/248) stated
that 1,163 of those quartered have subsequently deserted the
camps. Some of those have since claimed that they were press-
ganged by UNITA solely to make up the numbers in the camps.
One unconfirmed estimate is that between 35 and 40% of those
quartered were rounded up into UNITA forces for the purposes
of making up numbers for quartering, leaving most of UNITA s
fighting units intact. It is understood that of those
quartered, most are made up of local UNITA militia rather than
battle-hardened troops.

The Secretary General further pointed out that "the age of
some UNITA troops and the quality of surrendered weapons
continue to be a major concern, as described in paragraph 12
of my previous report to the Council. Moreover, UNITA armed
elements are still present in some areas that were expected to
be vacated upon quartering of UNITA troops".

On the subject of arms, a military expert has informed ACTSA
that UNITA is not handing over heavy weaponry, and that few of
the weapons handed over are the sophisticated US and South
African hardware in UNITA's possession.

Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali stated that "Much remains to be done
to fulfil the tasks that the two sides agreed to undertake in
accordance with the recently adjusted timetable;
implementation is once again behind schedule. Further delays
and procrastination could still jeopardize the peace process.
Complete and fully verifiable quartering by UNITA of its
troops is the key element. The results so far are inadequate.
I recognize the political, military and psychological
difficulties associated with this aspect of the process. But
if it is not executed in good faith, the implementation of
other essential aspects will be undermined, including the
withdrawal of FAA to the nearest barracks, the completion of
the quartering of the rapid reaction police, the disarmament
of the civilian population and the integration of UNITA
elements into FAA".

Rumours have continued to circulate that UNITA is moving its
best troops and weapons into Zaire. Stories are also beginning
to circulate in some circles that UNITA has only 40,000

Angolan Government withdraws from Joint Commission

In a serious sign of frustration with UNITA
prevarication, the Angolan Government has suspended its
participation in the Joint Commission which oversees the
peace process.

On 23 April the Government announced that it was
suspending its participation in the Joint Commission
until UNITA had clarified its position on the quartering
of its troops, and on whether Jonas Savimbi would accept
the offer of Vice-Presidency of the country. A senior
Government source said that after delays and UNITA's
"double-dealing", the Government had decided that "enough is
enough", until UNITA had resumed "serious dealing". However,
meetings seem likely to start again if UNITA meets its target
of quartering 30,000 troops by 8 May.

Savimbi optimistic

Asked whether the June deadline for the quartering of
all UNITA's estimated 62,000 troops, as agreed by
President Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas
Savimbi, would be met, Savimbi stated on Radio France
Internationale on 26 March that "It must be. We must be
able to finish the confinement and disarmament of our
soldiers by June, because June is the deadline to be
respected, so we think that in July there will be a
chance to form a government of national unity".

President of UN Security Council speaks out on UNITA delays

Despite the usage of diplomatic language, the President of the
Security Council, the Chilean Ambassador Juan Somavia, has
pointed the finger of guilt at UNITA for holding up the peace

In a statement read out on behalf of the Security Council on
24 April, the President stated that "the Security Council
notes that the Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de
Angola (UNITA) has quartered more than 20,000 of its forces,
but expresses concern over delays in the quartering of UNITA
troops and urges UNITA to move expeditiously to achieve full
quartering of its troops. The Council expresses concern about
the quality of weapons surrendered by UNITA and urges UNITA to
fulfil its commitment to turn over all of its arms,
ammunition, and military equipment as the quartering process
continues. It reiterates that the quartering process is a
crucial component of the peace process and stresses the need
for quartering to be credible and fully verifiable".

In contrast, the statement said that "the Security Council
recognises with satisfaction the progress by the Government of
Angola in the implementation of its commitments under the
Lusaka Protocol and the current timetable, and encourages the
Government to continue this progress".

The statement also raised the long-running concern of the UN
over the failure of the Angolan Government to provide
facilities for the establishment of an independent United
Nations radio service in the country.

The Council reaffirmed the "obligation of all States to
implement fully the provisions of paragraph 19 of resolution
864 (1993) of 15 September 1993". This refers to the mandatory
sanctions against supplying oil and weapons to UNITA.

It also noted "with concern credible reports of continuing
purchases and delivery of weapons to Angola".

Further developments reported

Meanwhile, the first phase of the return to barracks of
the Angolan Armed Forces was completed on 31 March with
445 troops being confined.

On 2 April Radio Nacional de Angola reported that the
Rapid Intervention Police had confined 3,367 men to
barracks in Huila, Moxico, Uige, Luanda, Benguela and
Huambo provinces, and that the second stage of
confinement was expected to begin shortly.

In a separate development UNITA confirmed on 1 April
that 20 prisoners of war were released in Bailundo.

Government ready to bring UNITA into FAA

General de Matos, Chief of Staff of the Angolan Armed
Forces (FAA) stated on Radio Nacional de Angola on 10
April that "we are ready at any time to begin
integrating UNITA troops into FAA forces". He confirmed
that it was not necessary for UNITA to confine at least
20,000  to the quartering areas, as had previously been

One major sticking point is the UNITA demand for a
presidential declaration of an amnesty, despite there
already being an agreement on amnesties. It seems likely
that the Government is willing to accommodate UNITA on
this point. It has been stated that once this issue is
overcome, the UNITA generals will go to Luanda.

The UN Secretary General reported to the Security
Council on 4 April that under the agreement of 9 March,
"UNITA will provide the joint army with 18 generals and
will fill several important positions, including that of
Vice-Minister of Defence, Deputy Chief of the General
Staff, Commander of one of the military regions and
Commander of the planned "fourth branch" of FAA.

Under the agreements reached between the Government and
UNITA, nine of the UNITA generals in FAA would be
allocated to the "fourth branch". However, Jonas Savimbi
has raised new criticism of the "fourth branch" which is
planned to be set up to assist with the reconstruction
of the country. On 27 March on UNITA's Radio Vorgan,
Jonas Savimbi stated that "the fourth branch of the army
was invented in Luanda. Already I have so many
headaches. I will not have my men sent somewhere else to
become foremen".

Think-tank points to UNITA strategic gains

The International Institute for Strategic Studies has
questioned UNITA's good faith, and claims that its
behaviour is paying them dividends.

In its annual summary of world events, the Strategic
Survey 1995/96, published on 24 April 1996, the
Institute states that "in Angola, the site of Africa's
longest-running war, nothing has changed. The United
Nations demobilisation stations are almost empty and the
process is months behind schedule. It is clear that
Jonas Savimbi, the Uniao Nacional para a Independencia
Total de Angola (UNITA) leader, has no intention of
trading his army for a seat in government. He will
instead hold out for both, using, as ever, his
dual-track policy of diplomacy and war".

Writing on the weakness of the United Nations the Report
states that the situation in Angola "has highlighted
that outsiders cannot impose solutions in Africa. In
Mozambique, an agreement held because both sides stuck
to it. In Angola, the weak and depleted UN could do
little when UNITA broke, and continues to break, the
peace accord, and the government compounds this
breakdown. It now seems likely that UNITA will not only
have a place in central government, but will also retain
some territorial control, possibly being offered a
diamond mine as a source of income and retaining some of
its fighting capacity".

Oxfam official murdered

An official of Britain's aid organisation OXFAM was
murdered along with two military observers whilst
travelling in a vehicle between Cubal and Benguela on 3

A UNAVEM-led team will go to the site of the attack to
investigate the incident. UNITA  issued a communique
stating that it "would like to condemn in the strongest
terms this act of pure vandalism". The head of Angola's
army, General Joao de Matos said on 10 April that "these
attacks are carried out by bandits and we must prevent
them when they are carried out in government- or UNITA-
controlled territory".

The London-based journal "Southscan" stated on 12 April
that the attack was carried out by UNITA troops.

As the Angola Peace Monitor goes to press the enquiry

1996 aid appeal launched as donors watch peace process

On 19 April in New York the UN launched its 1996
Humanitarian Appeal, while spelling out the remaining
shortfalls in support for last year's appeal.

The appeal provides for assistance to the 200,000
refugees expected to return to Angola, and the 700,000
internally displaced Angolans. It continues with the
Mine Action Programme, and the programme for the
assistance for the demobilisation and reintegration of
former combatants.

The total cost of this years programme is $187 million.
By 23 April the total amount pledged or carried over
from last year was $61,010,678.

Delays in peace lead to delays in aid

The failure of UNITA to quarter its rebel forces in line
with the timetable set under the Lusaka protocol has led
to urgently required aid being withheld by international

The war-torn country had been expecting a significant
amount of international assistance to help put the
country back on its feet after decades of destructive
war. However, figures produced by the United Nations
Department of Humanitarian Affairs show that even the
most basic aid - in the humanitarian field - has not
reached the country.

The DHA has told ACTSA that donor interest in the
country is very strong, but that donors have delayed for
a period for observation before committing their funds.
There are two interlinked issues: first, donors are
waiting to see if the peace process will continue;
second, many of the proposed projects can only be
implemented once the process has reached a certain stage
- for example demobilisation.

In 1995 the UN launched its Consolidated Inter-Agency
Appeal for Angola to mobilise international help for
urgently needed projects, totalling $303,338,748.
However, figures obtained by ACTSA show that as of 29
February 1996 only 47.9% of these requirements were met.

The Appeal was split into three components: the
Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme, the
Humanitarian Assistance Programme, and the Mine Action

Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme

In the Quartering Phase of this programme 59% of
required aid has been provided. The main task in the
Quartering Phase is to provide the necessary humanitarian
inputs, such as food and health provision for the UNITA
troops. Of the planned requirements, the international
community has met 84% of the needs.

However the projects covering humanitarian assistance
for disabled and underage soldiers, and projects for
technical coordination and institutional strengthening,
only received 34% of required inputs.

UNITA has made several complaints about the conditions
in the quartering areas, which it claims is responsible
for the death of several of its troops. However, the UN
Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit in Luanda
(UCAH) reported on 11 April that "existing shortcomings
in the implementation of the humanitarian assistance
programme reported by UNITA were a direct result of the
large and sudden influx of soldiers to the quartering
areas". They also pointed out that from individual
medical examinations of troops upon arrival at the
quartering areas, 15 different health problems had been
reported and were being treated.

In the other two phases in this programme, the
demobilisation and reintegration phase in year one and
two, no aid has been provided. This is a reflection of
how far behind schedule the process has become.

Humanitarian Assistance Programme

The Humanitarian Assistance Programme was an ambitious
set of projects to stabilise the situation in Angola,
covering emergency food aid, sanitation, health,
environmental protection, and many other emergency
projects. The total amount required to cover the Humanitarian
Assistance Programme was $179,192,206 of which 58% of
needs were met. Broken down into ten sub-totals, the
programme was met as follows:

sub-heading       requirements  % met

Food Production
and Rural Capacity  $22,835,097     52%
Food Aid            $67,130,262    100%
Nutrition            $3,896,000     20%
Water and Sanitation $8,025,000     26%
Health              $19,040,040     26%
Shelter, Relief and
Survival            $33,156,000     12%
Education and
Assistance to
Children in Difficult
Circumstances        $2,284,870     31%
Logistics           $13,012,230     57%
Agency Operational
Support              $3,380,000     83%
Coordination and
Capacity Building    $6,432,707     33%

Mine Action Programme

The Mine Action Programme was set up to deal with the
estimated ten million land mines buried in the ground.
Already 70,000 Angolans have been maimed by landmines,
and the remaining mines not only endanger the
population, but stifle the recovery of Angolan
agriculture. The total amount required for the programme was
$13,182,331, of which 24% has been met.

As of 29 February 1996, no monies had been pledged to
the Central Mine Action Training School which opened on
19 December 1995, and has so far trained 61 Angolans who
will be demining in Malange and Kuito.

First Brussels Round Table monies arrive

In another positive sign, $110 million has been donated
to Angola to assist with its reconstruction and
development. This is the first money to come out of the
Brussels Round Table meeting last September, when a
billion dollars was pledged to help rebuild the country.

Prime Minister Marcolino Moco said in Luanda on 25 March
that despite the reticence and hesitation of some
countries, the first $110 million had been received.

IMF link aid to reform, and reform to peace

Many donors have been reticent in providing money for
reconstruction and development, citing the decision of
the International Monetary Fund to suspend its IMF
staff-monitored programme in December 1995. This
programme was to oversee the implementation of certain
macro-economic policy changes, and did not involve any
lending to Angola.

The suspension was based on a detailed inspection late
last year. According to Frederick Ribe, Deputy Division
Chief for the Africa Department at the IMF, in an
interview with ACTSA, there was a "widespread failure to
implement even the most simple reforms, including
flagrant abuses".

Examples given included the "subversion" of the National
Bank, the breaking of a formal agreement for control
procedures by 1 October on the "petroleum account" at
the Presidents office, and the failure to unify the two
foreign exchange rates for the Kwanza currently
operating in the country. According to the IMF official,
this last condition was not met as it had been
personally vetoed by the Angolan President.

Another senior official at the IMF pointed out that the
fortunes of the peace process and economic reform were
inseparable. Economic reforms were not expected without
improvements in the security situation, and the peace
process was more complicated than expected. Frederick
Ribe was in Angola at the end of April discussing the

The Secretary General of the UN, Dr Boutros
Boutros-Ghali, stated in his report to the UN Security
Council on 4 April that "while the IMF remains in
contact with the Government, negotiations on a new
programme are not expected to begin before at least the
middle of  1996. In the meantime, the IMF continues to
provide significant technical assistance to the National
Bank of Angola and the Ministry of Finance".

The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by
ACTSA - Action for Southern Africa, the successor
organisation to the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, asa
contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency
Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for
international action in support of peace and democracy
in Angola.

A years subscription to the Angola Peace Monitor is
available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and
15 pounds sterling elsewhere. Please indicate whether
you wish to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post,
fax, or e-mail. A full set of back issues is available
at an additional cost of 2 pounds sterling. Payment
should be made in pounds sterling. If you wish to pay in
any other currency, you must add the equivalent of 6
pounds sterling to cover our bank charges.

ACTSA, 28 Penton Street, London N1 9SA, e-mail,
fax +44 171 837 3001, telephone +44 171 833 3133

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC). APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and
individuals. APIC is affiliated with the Washington Office on
Africa (WOA), a not-for-profit church, trade union and civil
rights group supported organization that works with Congress
on Africa-related legislation.


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