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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 11
Any links to other sites in this file from 1996 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
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Angola: Peace Monitor, II, 11
Date Distributed (ymd): 960805

Angola Peace Monitor
Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign
Issue no. 11, Volume II, 31 July 1996

International donors pledge support for reconstruction as
economic crisis moves centre stage

Pledges of aid from some international donors over the last
two months has marked a growth in concern over the economic
crisis in Angola.

International donors have begun to nominate projects which
will receive aid to rebuild the economy. Until now almost all
aid to Angola has been humanitarian aid (see APM no.8, Vol
II). Now development aid is trickling in, and it is hoped that
this will become a flood as donors keep their promises made in
Brussels on 25-26 September 1995, when almost one billion
dollars was pledged (see APM no.1, Vol II).

Recent pledges of development aid include: Switzerland:
co-operation agreement signed on 31 May for $12 million for
Community Rehabilitation Programme; United Nations Development
Programme: agreement for $10.5 million for community
rehabilitation signed on 17 June; Germany: protocol signed on
2 July for improving facilities in Kwanza Sul and Benguela;
European Union: allocated $210 million for socio-economic
development on 18 June; Japan: announced on 15 July aid of
$2.7 million to assist with agricultural production.

The economy is in a state of near collapse, a process started
when UNITA rejected the results of the 1992 UN supervised
elections and returned to war. In recent months the social
crisis has placed the Government under severe pressure,
leading to the replacement of Marcolino Moco with Fernando
Franca Van Dunem as Prime Minister (see APM no.10 Vol II).
Commentators attribute UNITA's prevarication over implementing
the agreements negotiated under the Lusaka Protocol to UNITA's
hope that the central Government will disintegrate with the
growing social discontent.

Several measures have been taken to stabilise the economy.
Subsidies of up to 50% have been introduced on fuel and flour.
Maximum prices and profit margins have been set for the sale
of goods, and the licensing of imports through private funds
has been banned.

Although these measures are aimed at reducing profiteering,
sources in Luanda have told ACTSA that there has been a sudden
reduction of food available in Luanda. On 10 July Jornal de
Angola published an announcement from the Government stating
that if shopkeepers did not reopen for trade they could fall
foul of the law concerning crimes against the national

In a further move to avoid profiteering by speculators, the
Council of Ministers announced on 9 July that there was to be
a single currency exchange rate.

Moose visit underlines US policy shift

In an important sign of support for the peace process, US
Under-Secretary of State for African Affairs, George Moose,
arrived in Angola on 11 July on a five day trip.

On 12 July George Moose met with the Joint Commission, the
body which is charged with implementing the peace process.
During the meeting he stated that the US administration was
happy with developments in the peace process, and that
progress had been recorded, although much needed to be done.

On 15 July the American official opened a USAID office in
Luanda. This is seen as significant as many other countries in
Africa are expecting their US aid to be reduced. The visit
underlines the shift in US policy over the last year, which
culminated in the visit of President dos Santos to the White
House in December 1995 (see APM no.5, Vol II)

Three month extension of UNAVEM mandate

The United Nations has agreed to extend its peace-keeping
force in Angola, UNAVEM III, for a further three months. The
decision was taken by the UN Security Council on 11 July 1996
in New York, following advice from its Secretary-General, Dr
Boutros Boutros-Ghali. The Secretary-General in his report to
the Security Council, published on 27 June 1996 (S/1996/503),
pointed out that UNAVEM III has become the UN's biggest
peace-keeping operation, and that its continued involvement
remains essential.

UNAVEM III will end in February 1997, and the
Secretary-General has initiated contingency planning for the
phased downsizing of its military component as soon as the
quartering process has been successfully concluded and the
incorporation of the rebel UNITA troops into the Angolan army,
the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) has reached an advanced stage.

Dr Boutros-Ghali drew attention to positive developments in
Angola: the adoption of the framework agreement on military
matters; the promulgation of the Amnesty Law on 8 May; the
beginning of the process of incorporating UNITA military
personnel into FAA; the completion of the quartering of the
rapid reaction police; and the second phase of the withdrawal
of FAA from forward positions. The Secretary-General also drew
attention to the fact that UNITA have submitted proposals to
change the status of its radio station, Vorgan, to ensure that
it becomes non-partisan.

FAA criticised over withdrawals

Under the Lusaka Protocol, which underpins the peace process,
the Government army is to withdraw to its bases away from
forward positions. However the UN Secretary-General criticised
FAA, stating that 14 out of the 47 redeployments have been
determined by UNAVEM III to be unsatisfactory.

UN slams UNITA over failure to quarter troops

The Secretary-General of the UN has once again shown
impatience at UNITA's failure to comply with the Lusaka
Protocol and subsequent agreements to quarter their troops in
UN verified bases.

It had been agreed on 1 March, at a meeting in Libreville
between UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi and Angolan President Jose
Eduardo dos Santos, that UNITA would complete the quartering
of its troops by the end of May 1996 (see APM no,7 Vol II).

On 14 May the UNITA leader promised that 50,000 soldiers (out
of a declared total of 62,500) would be quartered by 15 June.
Subsequently, on 21 May, an agreement was reached between the
Government and UNITA that all of the rebel troops would be
quartered by the end of June.

The self-imposed target of Jonas Savimbi was met on 17 June.
However, Dr Boutros-Ghali in his report to the Security
Council points out that in the second half of June the pace of
quartering decreased significantly. As at 25 June, 51,597
troops had been registered. The UN report also stated that
over 5,628 UNITA troops had deserted from the quartering
areas, stating that "it is believed that many of them are
civilians or members of local militias who had been brought
forcibly to the camps". Sources in Luanda state that there has
recently been an improvement in the quality of troops
quartered, with "real soldiers" entering the camps. These
soldiers are said to be under tight military discipline from
their UNITA officers.

Figures given by British foreign office minister Jeremy Hanley
MP, in response to a Parliamentary Question by Robert Hughes
MP, show that as of 10 July the total number of UNITA troops
quartered had only risen to 52,906. However, the number of
desertions had risen to 6,894. As Sylvana Foa, the
spokesperson for the Secretary-General, told journalists on 3
July, "some are coming in but a lot are going out".

The figures given by the British Minister also show that as of
10 July, 1,148 of those quartered were under the age of 15. A
further 3,931 were between the age of 15 and 18.

The Secretary-General stated in his report that the UN "will
not be in a position to declare that it [the quartering
process] is complete unless convincing evidence is provided
that all regular, commando, engineer, support and other units
of UNITA have been effectively cantoned or otherwise accounted
for. Another source of concern is the presence in areas
vacated by UNITA of persons which it claims are its police,
even though the establishment of such a force is contrary to
the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol. It is imperative that
these personnel also be quartered and their weapons handed
over to the United Nations".

15th quartering area set up in the Lundas

Agreement has been reached on the site for the 15th and final
Quartering Area. It will be at Kapenda Kamulemba, Muxinda in
Lunda Norte. This is the site where UNITA troops from the
Lundas are required to be confined until they are demobilised.
The Lundas are the two provinces with the richest diamond
deposits, making it a crucial area for UNITA. If the area
comes under the administrative control of the Government,
illegal diamond mining will be curtailed. There has been
continued violence associated with this illegal trade.

The acting head of the state diamond mining company has
visited the UNITA stronghold of Bailundo to discuss the future
of diamond mining. Speculation suggests that UNITA have been
offered a diamond concession.

UNITA hands over heavy weapons

UNITA have handed over a significant amount of heavy weapons
to the UN, following criticisms from many quarters, including
the UN Secretary-General, over the lack of quantity and
quality of weapons given in.

On 27 July UNITA handed over to the UN in Jamba 770 tonnes of
weapons and munitions. The arms included 16 tonnes of
ammunition, anti-aircraft guns, rockets and multiple rocket
launchers, several field artillery pieces, shells and
grenades, and one T-55 tank.

Acording to UNAVEM II Commander, General Philip Sibanda, the
arms and munitions turned in were new. The 770 tonnes has been
transported to Menongue, where UNAVEM III have their regional

Some weapons have already been destroyed in situ. On 11 June
the commander of UNAVEM III, General Sibanda, witnessed the
destruction of 11 tonnes of explosive devices including 2,019
anti-tank mines, 575 Soy mines, 6,768 anti-personnel mines,
12,569 Cardoen charges and 3,552 Claymore mines.

The Acting Chief of Staff, General Sapalalo "Bock" said that
"the people of Angola and the international community should
recognise that these are our last stocks".

UNITA maintains stockpiles

Although the amount of weapons in UNITA's armoury is not
public knowledge, what evidence exists show that UNITA
continues to be a well armed organisation.

According to the highly respected London-based organisation,
the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS),
UNITA are in possession of, inter alia:

T-34-85 tanks; T-55 tanks; miscellaneous armoured personnel
carriers; BM21 multiple rocket launchers; field artillery -
75, 76, 122 and 130mm; mortars - 81,82,120mm; anti tank
weapons - RPG-7, and 75mm rocket launchers; anti-aircraft -
12,7, 14.5, 20, 23mm; and SAM-7 and Stinger surface to air

It has been reported by Africa Watch that the Stinger missiles
were returned to the US in late 1990, however the
International Institute for Strategic Studies say that this is
"highly unlikely".

In addition to the above weapons, the Angolan Government also
report that it captured from UNITA in 1994 80mm and 106mm and
120mm artillery, 60mm mortars, and M-60 grenade launchers.

Recent information given to ACTSA by highly placed military
sources suggest that UNITA have substantial quantities of
weapons beyond what has been handed over to the UN. Whilst the
threat from tanks is minimal (with UNITA possessing roughly a
dozen, of questionable use), a greater threat is posed by
UNITA's ground to air missiles, with UNITA said to be in
possession of roughly 150 stinger missiles. UNITA are also
known to have quantities of SAM-7, 14 and 16 missiles.

UNITA also has many hundreds of hand-held rocket propelled
grenade launchers - RPG-7s. For its basic troops, UNITA have
substantial quantities of rifles (AK47's given to them by the
old Apartheid regime, supplemented by others bought on the
open market). They also have roughly 60 armoured personnel

In addition, it has also been suggested that UNITA have the
highly sophisticated US made TOW anti-tank missiles. However,
both the IISS and Janes Defence Weekly were surprised at this

The calculation of the quantity of UNITA arms is further
confused by Jonas Savimbi's recent remarks that UNITA has sold
many of its weapons (to unnamed buyers).

Some observers point out that even if UNITA is successfully
integrated into legal political activity, without full
disarmament the door will be left open to banditry.

Completion of armed forces

The process of incorporating UNITA's military force into the
Government army is back on track after its suspension by the

It was envisaged that UNITA generals would return to the FAA
by mid-July, and that the incorporation of 26,300 of its
troops into FAA would be completed by the end of July.
However, on 10 July the Chief of Staff of FAA, General Joao de
Matos announced the suspension of the incorporation process,
accusing UNITA of bad faith. In particular, the quality of
troops was judged to be too low. The FAA wanted to incorporate
"real soldiers".

However, by 25 July it was reported that sufficient guarantees
had been made by UNITA that the Government was prepared to
restart the integration process. It was reported by the
official Angolan news agency, ANGOP, that 667 soldiers and 70
surgeons were to be incorporated in Bie province "over the
next few days".

Offers of assistance for demobilised troops have continued to
come in from the international community, with the latest
offers coming from the United States, Israel, and Germany.
However, as US Ambassador to the UN, Karl Inderfurth, pointed
out to the UN Security Council on 11 July, "only $10 million
of the $42 million required for the first year of the
demobilisation/reintegration process has been received. We
call on other member states to give this urgent requirement
their fullest attention. Demobilised combatants must have a
real stake in peacetime Angola - they must be convinced that
there is indeed "life after Lusaka".

Disarming of civilians begins

The disarming of the civilian population, as demanded under
the Lusaka Protocol, has begun. According to General Higino
Carneiro citizens who hand in weapons will receive a reward.

On 6 July, Televisao Popular de Angola reported that the
National Police had collected 250 weapons in Luanda. However,
estimates put the total number of weapons in civilian hands at
one million. According to the London-based journal, Southscan,
700,000 weapons were distributed by Government forces to
civilians in Luanda after UNITA returned to war in 1992.

Government and UNITA agree to keep post of Prime Minister

The Portuguese radio station, Radio Renascenca, reported on 4
July that the Angolan government and UNITA had agreed to
maintain the post.

Savimbi prevaricates over vice-presidency

The leader of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, has maintained that it
will be up to the UNITA Congress, due to be held in August, to
decide whether he will take up the post of vice-President or
remain to be the leader of UNITA.

Despite the fact that Jonas Savimbi pushed to be offered the
post when he met with President dos Santos in Libreville in 1
March 1996, he now maintains that it is impossible to hold the
two posts. A further issue under discussion between the
Government and UNITA is the function of the two
vice-Presidents, with Savimbi calling for them to have
executive powers along with the abandonment of the post of
Prime Minister.

Savimbi meets Mbeki

The leader of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, met with South Africa's
Deputy President, Thabo Mbeki, in Pretoria on 8 July. An
official statement from the Deputy President's office stated
that Savimbi briefed Thabo Mbeki on the peace process. Savimbi
warned that the success of the peace process required that
donor countries fulfilled their pledges of financial
assistance to Angola.

UNITA blamed for aviation accident

The pilots who miraculously survived an aviation accident in
January 1996, in which at least 225 people were killed, have
blamed UNITA for overloading the aircraft.

The Soviet-built Antonov crashed into a market shortly after
taking off from Zaire's Kinshasa airport. The pilots, who are
on trial in Zaire, state that they were on an illegal mission
to deliver supplies to UNITA.

The fact that so many people died in the incident has been put
down to the fact that the aircraft was carrying petroleum
products that ignited after the crash, burning the victims to

Former Prime Minister to head of Lusophone Commonwealth

Marcolino Moco, who was replaced as Prime Minister of Angola
in June (see APM no.10, Vol II) has been confirmed as head of
the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP).

The Commonwealth was formally launched on 17 July in Lisbon,
where heads of state signed the founding declaration. The
members of the Lusophone Commonwealth are Portugal, Angola,
Brazil, Sao Tome and Principe, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and
Cape Verde.

The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to
the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. It is produced as our
contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency
Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for
international action in support of peace and democracy in

A years subscription to the Angola Peace Monitor is
available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and 15
pounds sterling elsewhere. Please indicate whether you wish
to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post, fax, or e-mail.
A full set of back issues is available at an additional cost
of 2 pounds sterling. Payment should be made in pounds
sterling. If you wish to pay by any other currency, you must
add the equivalent of 6 pounds sterling to cover our bank
charges. Back issues of the Angola Peace Monitor are
available at

28 Penton Street
London N1 9SA UK

tel: +44 171 833 3133; fax: +44 171 837 3001

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by
the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC), the educational
affiliate of the Washington Office on Africa. APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
providing accessible policy-relevant information and
analysis usable by a wide range of groups and individuals.


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