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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Peace Monitor, III, 2
Any links to other sites in this file from 1996 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
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Angola: Peace Monitor, III, 2
Date Distributed (ymd): 961031

Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign

Issue no.2 Vol III 30 October 1996

UN sets UNITA 20 November ultimatum

In a significant new indication of growing impatience with
UNITA's prevarication, the United Nations Security Council has
given UNITA the deadline of 20 November to complete specific
military tasks or face the prospect of sanctions.

Meeting in New York on 11 October to renew UNAVEM III's
mandate, the Security Council expressed "deep disappointment
with UNITA for delaying the full implementation of the Lusaka
Protocol" (resolution 1075/1996).

The resolution demanded that UNITA stands by its commitment to
transform itself from an armed opposition to a political
party. To this end it called on UNITA to carry out the tasks
formulated by the Secretary General's Special Representative
in Angola, Alioune Blondin Beye, in his "Mediation Document",
which includes to: complete substantially the selection of
UNITA soldiers to join the Angolan army; stem the flow of
deserters from the quartering areas and to return those who
have deserted; register in the quartering areas "UNITA
policemen" who have remained in areas vacated by UNITA
military forces; dismantle all UNITA command posts; co-operate
fully with UNAVEM in the extension of State administration
throughout Angola; make available other generals and high
ranking officers for duty in the Angolan army; return all
elected deputies to the National Assembly; establish the free
circulation of people and goods; cease interference with UN
aircraft flights and with mine-clearing activities.

The resolution states the Security Council's "readiness to
consider the imposition of measures, including, inter alia,
those specifically mentioned in paragraph 26 of resolution
864/1993 of 15 September 1993, unless, by 20 November 1996,
the Secretary General has reported that UNITA has made
substantial and genuine progress in fulfilling its tasks in
the Mediation Document and its commitments under the Lusaka

In view of the situation in Angola, the Security Council only
agreed to extend UNAVEM III's mandate until 11 December 1996.
It took note of the expectation that UNAVEM III would complete
its mission by February 1997.

Resolution reflects growing anger

Up until now the Security Council has resisted calls to
threaten further sanctions on UNITA if it fails to meet
deadlines. In part, the strong resolution is being read as a
result of a high level delegation of foreign ministers from
Southern Africa representing the Southern Africa Development
Community (SADC) at the meeting in New York (see separate

There is a growing desperation internationally at the delaying
tactics of UNITA, who have once more failed to meet solemn
undertakings to comply with a deadline of 20 September for the
completion of the specific military tasks outlined in the
Mediation Document.

Many commentators are now suggesting that November will be a
watershed for Angola. Sources claim that UNITA has recently
sold $20 million worth of illegally mined diamonds, and is
using the proceeds to buy arms. In another move, UNITA has
begun to claim that the Government army is launching attacks
on UNITA areas. Some fear this may be a pretext for military
action by UNITA's forces, held in reserve during the
quartering process.

However, the international political environment is
increasingly supportive of the Angolan Government. A growing
number of analysts are coming to the conclusion that Savimbi
now faces the choice of coming into the political fold or
using military force to maintain his power. The highly
respected International Institute for Strategic Studies, in
their annual publication "The Military Balance", published on
9 October, states that "Jonas Savimbi retains his UNITA forces
and the demobilisation process has so far not been completed.
The situation will not improve until the internal power
struggle has been resolved".

A leader piece in The Times in London stated on 4 October that
"Mr Savimbi's UNITA forces still control substantial areas of
the Lundas, the Eastern provinces of Angola. Commanding an
estimated $500 million a year from their diamond fields, he
grows rich while he keeps his country in limbo". It continued
that "Mr Savimbi has squandered whatever sympathy the West
once harboured for him. Angola's only chance of recovery is
that all the warring factions should honour their agreements.
Meanwhile the prospects for this war-torn country look bleak".


The serious threat posed by UNITA has spurred the member
states of the Southern African Development Community to take
a more interventionist stance on Angola in an attempt to
salvage the peace process.

SADC's Political, Defence and Security body met in Luanda on
2 October. Attending the summit were seven presidents, two
prime ministers, one deputy prime minister and Malawi's High
Commissioner. Following the meeting, a high level delegation
was despatched to New York to call on the Security Council to
impose sanctions on UNITA.

Zambia's President, Frank Chiluba, invited UNITA leader Jonas
Savimbi to attend the summit. His failure to attend angered
the heads of state, who "expressed deep disappointment at the
absence at the event of the UNITA leader, Dr Jonas Savimbi, at
a crucial phase of the peace process".

Having received briefings on the current situation from
Angola's President dos Santos, and the United Nations
Secretary General's Special Representative Alioune Blondin
Beye, the summit expressed concern over the impasses and slow
progress in the implementation of the peace process.

In particular, the summit placed the blame for the slow
progress on UNITA. It "strongly appealed to UNITA to honour
its commitments within the deadlines set out in the Lusaka
Protocol and UN Security Council Resolution 864/93".

In a clear signal that patience with UNITA had run out, the
summit decided to send a delegation to the United Nations in
New York to put forward a regional position on the peace
process, specifically to call on the Security Council to "take
into consideration UNITA's latest failure to comply with its
commitments and, consequently, adopt measures, within the
framework of Resolution 864/93, to make UNITA fully and
urgently respect the deadlines established by the Security

Resolution 864/93 lays out sanctions to be taken against
UNITA, which include measures to restrict trade with UNITA and
to restrict the travel of UNITA personnel. (Other measures may
include the closing of UNITA offices and the freezing of UNITA
bank accounts).


The European Union has called for UNITA to abide by the Lusaka
Protocol. The call came during an important meeting in
Windhoek, Namibia, between the EU and SADC on 15 October.

Irish Foreign Minister Dick Spring, who is President of the EU
Council of Ministers, said that "we need to get Savimbi back
to the negotiating table and seek an ultimate reconciliation.
They have to be ready to walk the last mile". He continued
that "international pressure is already mounting on Savimbi".

The EU used the occasion to promise to fund programmes to
remove mines. Dick Spring said that "this is a priority issue
for the EU".


The Security Council meeting in New York on 11 October had
before them a report from the UN Secretary General
(S/1996/827), in which he called for additional support for
the demobilisation process.

The Secretary General stated that "the demobilisation and
reintegration process is at a critical juncture: to support
the demobilisation of approximately 100,000 ex-combatants, the
humanitarian community will have to increase its activities
and donors will need to come forward with additional
resources. Only 27.4% of the costs of the demobilisation and
reintegration programmes are currently covered, and, unless
the donor community provides the indispensable additional
resources in the near future, the process will come to a

Dr Boutros Ghali placed the blame for the slow pace of
integrating UNITA personnel into the Angolan army squarely on
the rebel movement. He stated that "although selection teams
were deployed to almost all quartering areas, UNITA continued
to procrastinate on this issue". He also warned that "the
overall quality of weapons and ammunition surrendered [by
UNITA to the United Nations] remains low. Moreover, only
28,762 personal weapons and 3,969 crew-served weapons have
been surrendered to the United Nations".

The head of the UN also pointed out that there is likely to be
a problem with next year's harvest. He stated that "the
prospects for the next planting season depend largely on the
free circulation of people and goods. The presence of newly
planted mines along some secondary roads which were previously
considered safe is raising serious concerns among humanitarian
agencies responsible for the distribution of agricultural

The Secretary General makes clear that he intends UNAVEM III
to complete "most of its mandated tasks by February 1997". He
is therefore aiming to start withdrawing UN infantry and
support units by the end of December 1996.


The Secretary General's Special Representative in Angola,
Alioune Blondin Beye, stated on 9 October that there is no
reason to keep the UN troops in Angola for much longer.

He continued that "The international community, Angolan
civilians and even the protagonists are impatient. Everyone
has in mind the fact that the second anniversary is
approaching, and that we should have made more progress".

Alioune Blondin Beye has also provided the latest figures for
UNITA troops quartered. He stated on 19 October that "as of 17
October, 63,704 UNITA troops have been registered in the
quartering areas, but 13,476 have deserted leaving 49,658
present, of which 11,322 have been selected to join the
unified national army". Under the Lusaka Protocol, 26,300
UNITA personnel are to join the Angolan army.

The Secretary General's Special Representative also stated
that 455 youngsters have been demobilised.

Members of Blondin Beye's team openly admit that UNITA
soldiers are at large in the country. Col. Raj Manucha, head
of India's contingent to the UN operation in Negage, stated
"I'm aware that many of them have not joined. I won't be
surprised if they have weapons and ammunition".

The Portuguese Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs,
speaking on 10 October at the UN Security Council in New York,
expressed concern over the increasing numbers of desertions
from the quartering areas and reports that they were not
spontaneous, but occurred in an organised manner.


As part of an Africa tour, the US Secretary of State, Warren
Christopher, visited Angola on 14 October, where he held
meetings with senior figures on the current peace process.

During his five hour visit he met with President dos Santos
and the Joint Commission which oversees the peace process.
UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi refused to come to Luanda to meet
Mr Christopher, who appointed his representative, George Moose
to travel to Andulo to pass on a message from the US
administration. However, due to heavy rain Moose's aircraft
was unable to land and was forced to return to Luanda. The US
ambassador is now delegated to pass on the message to Savimbi.

On the eve of Christopher's visit to Angola, a state
department official is quoted by SAPA as saying that Savimbi
has not respected all his commitments as part of the peace
process in Angola while "the Government is upholding its end
of the bargain for the most part". The report states that the
US Government is "growing increasingly irritated with the
attitude of Angola's UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi, but does not
wish to cut ties with him".


Ahead of Mr Chrisopher's visit, the commander in chief of US
troops in Europe, General James Jamerson, arrived in Luanda on
24 September. This was his third visit to the country in 1996.
During his visit he met with the Prime Minister Fernando Van
Dunem, and other officials.


A group of four more UNITA generals arrived in Luanda on 11
October to join the five that arrived on 10 September. They
are to be integrated into the Angolan army's High Command. The
group was composed of Generals Demosthenes Amos Chilingutila,
Job Sukuete "Longfellow", Alberto Pongolola "Bungi" and
Deolindo Katata "Wenda".

It has been reported that General Paulo Lukamba "Gato" was
expected to arrive in Luanda to take up a position in FAA.
However, there is no indication as to when the leading UNITA
general Altino Bango Sapalalo "Bock" and others are to rejoin
the army.


Eighty two UNITA members arrived in Luanda on 24 September for
integration into the national police force. The UNITA members
join another 27 that have already been integrated into the
special force to protect diplomats and political figures. They
will have the specific task of protecting UNITA figures.


Human rights group Amnesty International has called for a
"thorough investigation by independent forensic and other
suitably qualified experts on a mass burial ground, reportedly
containing the remains of at least 60 people, apparently
victims of deliberate and arbitrary killings, which was
discovered by a mine clearing team working near Soyo in
north-western Antola".

The statement added that according to local residents the
victims were probably abducted by UNITA, who had held the area
for a year from May 1993.

It continued that "among the remains were skulls with holes
suggesting shots to the head, the bones of children and
articles of women's clothing and Government police uniforms".

Amnesty International also brought out on 24 October a report
on the human rights situation in Angola. It warned that the
"political compromise" in Angola "will unravel if it does not
include mechanisms for the protection and promotion of human

The report warns that without human rights peace cannot last,
and calls on both the Government and UNITA to take immediate
steps to ensure that members of the security forces who abuse
human rights are brought to justice.

The report calls for the setting up of "a permanent,
independent and impartial body which is able to monitor human
rights and ensure that appropriate remedial action is taken".
Copies of the report are available from Amnesty International,
International Secretariat, 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 8DJ.


Angola has entered into a defence agreement with its former
coloniser, Portugal, allowing for joint military industries.

The agreement, signed on 3 October, was reached between
Angola's Defence Minister, General Pedro Sebastiao and his
Portuguese counterpart, Antonio Vitorino.

The Portuguese minister was on a five day visit to the
country, where he met with members of the Government and
UNITA. He was also invited to address the SADC meeting in


Following a three day visit to Angola in October, the IMF's
managing director Michel Camdessus said he believed the
country was serious about economic reform and pledged to set
up a three-year emergency programme worth up to $75 million.

Some donors, including Britain, have linked pledges of
development aid to Angola to economic reform.

In a different interpretation of the IMF's visit to Angola,
the London-based journal Southscan said on 18 October that the
IMF has "warned that it will not back a reconstruction package
for the Angolan economy until after a government of national
unity has been formed".


The UK Working Group on Landmines, of which ACTSA is a member,
staged a vigil and photo-call to draw attention to the
"world's worst serial killer" - anti-personnel mines.

The vigil on 3 October at St Martin in the Fields, Trafalgar
Square, London, had a one and a half tonne mountain of shoes
to represent the 26,000 people every year who are injured by

The vigil coincided with a three day conference in Canada
which debated an action plan for working towards a global ban
on anti-personnel mines.

It is estimated that there have been 75,000 landmine victims
in Angola, with 4 - 8 million mines still buried.

The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA -
Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to the
British Anti-Apartheid Movement. It is produced as our
contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency
Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for international
action in support of peace and democracy in Angola.

ACTSA,  28 Penton Street,  London N1 9SA, UK, e-mail, fax +44 171 837 3001,  telephone +44
171 833 3133. Back issues of the Angola Peace Monitor are
available on the WorldWide Web at

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC), the educational
affiliate of the Washington Office on Africa. APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and


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