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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Angola: Recent Documents
Any links to other sites in this file from 1996 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Angola: Recent Documents
Date Distributed (ymd): 961012

Contains (1) SADC Statement, (2) USIA report on UN SG Report,
(3) USIA report on US statement in UN Security Council debate


1.   The SADC Political, Defence and Security body
held a summit meeting in Luanda, capital of the
Republic of Angola, on 2 October 1996.

2.   The summit was attended by:
     Zimbabwe - HE President Robert G Mugabe
     South Africa - HE President Nelson Mandela
     Botswana - HE President Ketumile Masire
     Angola - HE President Jose Eduardo dos Santos
     Mozambique - HE President Joaquim Alberto Chissano
     Namibia - HE President Sam Nujoma
     Zambia - HE President F J T Chiluba
     Swaziland - HE Prime Minister B S Dlamini
     Malawi - HE the acting High Commissioner to Namibia,
     T L Maruwasa
     Lesotho - HE Prime Minister P Mosisili
     Mauritius - HE Paul Raymond Berenger, Deputy Prime
     Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs for
     Regional and International Cooperation.

3.   The summit was briefed by the President of the
Republic of Angola, HE Jose Eduardo dos Santos, on the state
of the peace process within the framework of the Lusaka
Protocol signed in 1994.

4.   The summit was also given a detailed briefing by
the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-
General in Angola, Mr Alioune Blondin Beye, on the
implementation of the Angolan peace process.

5.   The summit expressed concern over the impasses and
slow progress in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol.

6.   The summit expressed deep disappointment at the
absence at the event of the Unita leader, Dr Jonas Savimbi,
at a crucial phase of the peace process.   The summit noted
that his presence would have helped clarify Unita's concerns
and aspirations, so as to boost the peace process.

7.   The summit called for an urgent high-level meeting
between the Angolan Government and Unita, with a view to
finding ways of resolving all outstanding issues, including
the completion of the process of forming the national army and
the establishment of a Government of national reconciliation,
in accordance with the principles of the Lusaka Protocol.

8.   The summit strongly appealed to Unita to honour
its commitments within the deadlines set out in the Lusaka
Protocol and United Nations Security Council Resolution
864/93.   In this connection, the summit also called on all
countries to refrain from any acts that could have a negative
effect on the resolution of the Angolan conflict.

9.   The summit called on the international community to
continue to provide material assistance for the peace process,
with a view to facilitating the processes of demobilisation
and integration.

10.  The summit concluded that the current situation in
Angola is a major obstacle to full cooperation in a regional
context and seriously hinders the region's joint development
projects.   It thus urges Unita to work for peace and
democracy in Angola and contribute effectively to the
establishment of a new era of stability and cooperation
in Southern Africa.

11.  The summit expressed its appreciation for the efforts
made by the Representative of the United Nations Secretary-
General in Angola, Unavem III and the Troika of observers
in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol.

12.  The summit decided to send a delegation of five
ministers to New York to present the regional position on
the Angolan peace process to the Security Council.

13.  The summit called on the Security Council to take
into consideration Unita's latest failures to comply with
its commitments and, consequently, adopt measures, within
the framework of Resolution 864/93, to make Unita fully and
urgently respect the deadlines established by the Security

14.  The summit thanked the Government and people of Angola
for the warm hospitality afforded the Heads of State and their

Luanda, 2 October 1996


(FR) (Secretary-general wants shorter UNAVEM mandate) (630)
By Judy Aita, USIA United Nations Correspondent

UNITED NATIONS -- Complaining about "continuing delays,
unfulfilled promises, and grudging compliance" in implementing
the Angola peace accords, Secretary-General Boutros
Boutros-Ghali said that unless serious progress is made on key
commitments by the UNITA rebels, the 7,264-member U.N. mission
should be extended for only two more months.

In a written report to the Security Council released October
8, the secretary-general said that unless the remaining five
UNITA generals arrive in Luanda to take their place in the
Angolan Armed Forces -- and the selection of UNITA soldiers
for the national army is speeded up -- the council should
extend the mandate of the U.N. Angola Verification Mission
(UNAVEM) only to December 11 so that the situation can be kept
under close review.

Boutros-Ghali said that UNITA must ensure the arrival in
Luanda of all its generals for integration into the Angolan
armed forces, return the more than 11,000 UNITA deserters to
quartering areas, and speed up the selection of the more than
22,000 UNITA soldiers for incorporation into the army. The
tasks should be accomplished according to "a clear and precise
calendar," he said.

UNAVEM Three, currently the largest and most costly of the
U.N. peacekeeping operations, is to end in February 1997; its
current mandate expires on October 11. UNAVEM costs U.N.
members over $165.98 million for six months.

At a time when peacekeeping funds are scarcer then ever and
when all U.N. expenditures are being closely scrutinized, the
secretary-general said, "it is becoming increasingly difficult
to generate international support for operations which do not
enjoy the full cooperation of the conflicting parties."

In Angola the pattern has been one of "grudging compliance
with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, with protracted
delays, and last-minute concessions. This trend cannot
continue, and the parties, especially UNITA, must now decide
whether they will implement in good faith all the outstanding
provisions of the peace agreement," he said.

"While the cease-fire is holding and the parties continue to
profess their commitment to the Lusaka Protocol, the lack of
significant progress in the peace process over the past three
months is a source of serious concern," Boutros-Ghali said.

"Nearly two years after the signing of the protocol, the
continuing delays and unfulfilled promises, particularly on
the part of UNITA, in implementing the successive timetables
for the completion of key military and political issues are no
longer acceptable," he said.

"The implementation process is substantially behind schedule
and the lack of mutual trust between the government and UNITA
continues to jeopardize the attainment of lasting peace in
Angola," the secretary-general said.

The secretary-general said the failure of UNITA leader Jonas
Savimbi to attend the Southern African Development Community
(SADC) meeting in early October was a missed opportunity for
Savimbi and Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos to
resolve key issues and to provide a much-needed impetus to the
peace process.

Several SADC members have asked the council to hold a separate
debate on Angola on October 10 before deciding on the UNAVEM
mandate. The meeting is expected to generate criticism of
UNITA's actions.

If Savimbi feels he cannot assume a vice president's post in
the government, the secretary-general said, "it is incumbent
on [UNITA] to make a meaningful counterproposal as soon as

Nevertheless, the secretary-general added, despite the
considerable delays in implementing the peace accord, it
should still be possible for UNAVEM to complete most of its
tasks by February 1997. He said he expected to begin
withdrawing some infantry and support units by the end of

Note: This report is from the United States Information
Agency (gopher://
The Secretary-General's full report is available on the APC
conference  SG reports are not currently regularly
available on the United Nations web site.


(FR) (Ambassador Inderfurth's remarks to UNSC) (1200)

UNITED NATIONS -- Declaring that the United States is "very
troubled" by the lack of movement in the Angolan peace
process, U.S. Ambassador Karl Inderfurth said the U.S.
"strongly urges" the UNITA rebels "to act boldly" and take the
final steps to meet their obligations under the Lusaka peace

In a speech to the Security Council October 10, Inderfurth
said that "we and the rest of the world cannot hide our
impatience with the standstill in the process.... We see that
the time has come to express ourselves more strongly to help
a friend to find the way more clearly to make a decision that,
although difficult and fraught with uncertainty, is the best

The ambassador said that UNITA should "avail itself of the
security" of the remaining months of the U.N. Angola
Verification Mission (UNAVEM) to integrate its senior generals
into the Angolan army high command, designate its fighters for
the Angolan army, take its place in the government of national
unity, and help spread central state control through the

The meeting was requested by the South African Development
Community (SADC), which was represented by the foreign
ministers of Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Botswana at the council
meeting. More than 30 countries spoke during the daylong
session, complaining about the major difficulties and setbacks
in the peace protocol, especially the failure of UNITA to live
up to the timetables.

Inderfurth said that proof of the strong U.S. support for the
Angolan peace process will be provided when Secretary of State
Warren Christopher visits Luanda next week. Christopher "is
hopeful that his visit can add to the impetus already provided
by the SADC Summit of last week to reinvigorate the peace
process," he said.

Following is the text of the ambassador's remarks:


Mr. President,

I would first like to thank the Secretary-General for his
report on the situation in Angola, which reflects, among other
things, the exceptional work being done by the men and women
of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission to support
the peace process under trying conditions. My thanks also go
to the Secretary-General's Special Representative, Maitre
Beye, whose extraordinary devotion to his mission of bringing
peace to Angola has been exemplary.

I would also like to welcome the presence of the distinguished
ministerial delegation who have addressed the Council on
behalf of Angola's neighbors of the Southern Africa
Development Community. Their role in the peace process is
vital, lending their voice and a helping hand to bring the
long era of conflict in Angola to a close.

We have come a long way on the path toward peace and national
reconciliation from the dark days of just a few years ago.
Angola, and indeed the world, is poised for the most
significant, and to some the most difficult, step in the
process -- the integration of two warring parties into a
single entity, politically unified under a Government of Unity
and National Reconciliation and militarily unified under a
single high command with a single armed force.

With so much accomplished and with the end in sight, however,
we are very troubled to find the peace process nearly at a
standstill, with dates for accomplishment of promised actions
set and, repeatedly, disregarded; with combatants in
quartering areas becoming impatient to get on with their
lives; with the rains that hinder all forms of transportation
threatening to unhinge all demobilization plans.

It is time now for UNITA to act boldly, to take the remaining
steps toward compliance with the obligations it set for itself
in the Lusaka Protocol. Militarily, it must integrate its
senior generals into the high command and designate its
combatants for service in the nation's armed forces.
Politically, it must take its place in a government of
national unity, with its representatives rejoining the
National Assembly to assist in developing legislation and with
its civilian officials helping to spread central State control
throughout the national territory. It is also incumbent on the
government of Angola to foster the conditions for this to take
place by putting aside past differences and making use of the
vast resources of talent being provided by UNITA.

We and the rest of the world cannot hide our impatience with
the standstill in the process. As friends of all the people of
Angola, we have given our advice and support. Now, as any good
friend would do, we see that the time has come to express
ourselves more strongly, to help a friend to find the way more
clearly to make a decision that, although difficult and
fraught with uncertainty, is the best one. The United States
strongly urges UNITA to avail itself of the security of the
few remaining months of UNAVEM's mission to complete rapidly
these commitments.

If UNITA can make these efforts and the government of Angola
can honor its agreement to welcome UNITA's reintegration, then
the United States and, I would think, other members of the
international community, would be prepared to offer our
continuing assistance in rebuilding Angola.

Mr. President, I am proud of the role played by my country in
this international effort to assist Angola. This past year,
the United States provided more than $100 million in
assistance to address the tragic legacy of civil war through
programs to resettle refugees and displaced persons,
demobilize soldiers, build democratic institutions, reform the
economy, demine the roads and fields, and address the
disproportionate hardships for women children and the
handicapped. Today, child soldiers are putting down their
AK-47's and picking up schoolbooks; joint teams are learning
to lift the millions of mines that plague Angola instead of
planting new ones; the government and UNITA are deciding their
futures around a negotiating table and not on a battlefield.

In short, Mr. President we have come a long way, and we can
almost see the end. We can almost see the withdrawal of the
large UNAVEM military force provided by the member states of
the United Nations to ensure peace in Angola during the
difficult transition. We can almost see a vast reduction in
the threat of landmines to future generations of Angolans. We
can almost see the entire region of southern Africa finally at
peace -- Mozambique at peace, South Africa at peace, Namibia
at peace, and now the possibility of Angola joining its
brothers. We can almost see the commencement of a new era of
peace and prosperity, as Angola, with the assistance of other
nations, reasserts itself in the world economy.

The continued commitment of the United States to the success
of the peace process is evidenced by the fact that the
Secretary of State will visit Luanda next week. He is hopeful
that his visit can add to the impetus already provided by the
SADC Summit of last week to reinvigorate the peace process and
to the work of the Angolan people to build the new Angola: an
Angola that is democratic, respectful of human rights,
market-oriented, and possessing the basic institutions of a
civil society.

Thank you, Mr. President.

Note: This report is from the United States Information
Agency (gopher://
UN Press Releases, including SC/6277, with an extensive
summary of remarks in the Security Council debate of October
10, are available at, by
searching under the keyword Angola.

On Friday, October 11, the Security Council extended the
mandate of its Verification Mission (UNAVEM-III) in Angola by
two months. In a resolution approved unanimously, the council
expressed its concern about the lack of significant progress
in the Angolan peace process and about the "delays and broken
promises from UNITA, in the implementation of the peace
process schedule."  The press release summarizing the debate
should also be available soon on the UN Web site.

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC), the educational
affiliate of the Washington Office on Africa. APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and


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