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Note: This document is from the archive of the Africa Policy E-Journal, published by the Africa Policy Information Center (APIC) from 1995 to 2001 and by Africa Action from 2001 to 2003. APIC was merged into Africa Action in 2001. Please note that many outdated links in this archived document may not work.

Burundi: Recent Documents
Any links to other sites in this file from 1996 are not clickable,
given the difficulty in maintaining up-to-date links in old files.
However, we hope they may still provide leads for your research.
Burundi: Recent Documents
Date Distributed (ymd): 960705

Note: Correction to posting on

Africa: Rural Credit in Benin (960703)

The line with the URL for World Bank Findings mentioned in the
posting was incomplete.  It should have read:


June 26, 1996

1.  At the invitation of President Benjamin Mkapa of the
United Republic of Tanzania, Presidents Daniel arap Moi of
Kenya, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Pasteur Bizimungu of Rwanda,
and Sylvestre Ntibantunganya of Burundi and the host, met in
Arusha, Tanzania, on Tuesday the 25th June, 1996 to review the
political and security situation in Burundi in particular, and
in the Great Lakes Region in general. President Mobutu Sese
Seko of Zaire was represented by Deputy Prime Minister and
Minister for External Relations, Hon. J.M. Kititwa Tumansi.

2.  Also participating in the Regional Summit were the Prime
Minister of Ethiopia, Meles Zenawi, in his capacity as the
current Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU),
the Prime Minister of Burundi, Antoine Nduwayo, and the OAU
Secretary General, Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim.

3.  The Heads of State and Government profoundly regretted
that notwithstanding efforts made at regional, continental and
international levels, the situation in Burundi has continued
to deteriorate.

4.  The Heads of State and Government expressed their deep
concern on the deteriorating situation in Burundi which
continues to be characterized by violence and killings causing
increasing numbers of internally displaced persons and fleeing
refugees into neighbouring countries.

5.  The Summit reiterated the responsibility of the leadership
in Burundi to restore peace and harmony to the Burundi people
and urged the leadership in Burundi to play that role.

6.  Heads of State and Government in response to this request
by the Government of Burundi has agreed to set up a Technical
Committee to look into the modalities of extending such

7.  Heads of State and Government reaffirmed their commitment
to a negotiated peace resolution in Burundi.  In this context
the Heads of State and Government affirmed that negotiations
should involve all parties and groups.

8.  The Summit stressed that a durable settlement must be
based on democracy and security for all.

9.  In order to move forward the process of negotiations there
must be security in the country.  In this regard the Summit
urged all sides in the conflict to end the violence

10.  With view to promoting security the Government of Burundi
has requested the countries of the region to provide security
assistance. This security assistance is aimed inter alia to
guarantee security for all the people of Burundi.

11.  Heads of State and Government in response to this request
by the Government of Burundi has agreed to set up a Technical
Committee to be headed by Tanzania to look into the modalities
of extending such assistance.

12.  The Summit expressed its profound appreciation to Mwalimu
Nyerere for his efforts and urged to continue with those
efforts which enjoy universal support in the interest of
lasting peace and stability.

Transcribed by UN DHA IRIN, Nairobi.  This document is
distributed via the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs
Integrated Regional Information Network.  Tel: +254 2 444338;
e-mail: The material contained in this
communication may not be taken to reflect the views of the
United Nations or its  agencies.

U N I T E D   N A T I O N S
Department of Humanitarian Affairs
Integrated Regional Information Network
Tel: +254 2 441125; Fax: +254 2 448816;

This is number 15 in a series of weekly reports from IRIN on
general developments in the Great Lakes region.  Sources for
the information below include UN, NGO, other international
organizations and media reports. IRIN issues these reports for
the benefit of the humanitarian community,
but accepts no responsibility as to the accuracy of the
original sources.

Weekly Roundup of Main Events in the Great Lakes region
23 - 30 June 1996


#    A technical committee headed by Tanzania and comprising
foreign ministers from the sub-region will meet in Arusha on
Monday 1 July to consider how best they can meet the Burundi
Government's request for regional security assistance to help
end escalating violence in the country. The request, which has
been angrily rejected by both Burundi's UPRONA party and
PARENA (the Party for National Recovery), was made at a summit
on Burundi held in Arusha on Tuesday. The technical committee
has been charged with reporting back to regional leaders prior
to the OAU summit in Cameroon from 8-10 July. An international
diplomatic source told reporters on Friday that "security
assistance" would probably entail protection of politicians,
civil servants and key installations, including schools,
universities, health facilities and telecommunications. Other
likely assistance would be the training of police and
paramilitary gendarmerie. The same diplomatic source said the
current thinking was that the Tanzanian and Ugandan armies
would provide the bulk of the security force, while Kenya
might contribute police. Western countries would be expected
to foot the bill.


Tuesday's summit was attended by the presidents of Burundi,
Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, the former Tanzanian
president Julius Nyerere, OAU secretary-general, Salim Ahmed
Salim and the OAU chairman, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of
Ethiopia. Zaire's place was filled by Deputy Prime Minister
and Foreign Minister, Kititwa Tumansi. Opening the summit,
host President, Benjamin Mkapa warned about the "almost
frantic" amassing of weapons of all kinds by each group in
Burundi and said that if violence continued the wider
international community might feel obliged to intervene. The
UN Security Council had ordered consultations for a military
backed intervention in Burundi, but no western government had
offered to take the lead in such an operation. The OAU said
recently that it would support military intervention in
Burundi if the situation worsens and the mission had clear
objectives and UN backing.

June 17, 1996

WASHINGTON -- President Clinton has appointed former Michigan
Congressman Howard Wolpe to serve as special envoy of the
president and secretary of state for Burundi peace

Former Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere is now mediating
talks between Burundi faction leaders in Mwanza, Tanzania.

As special envoy, Wolpe will work with Richard Bogosian,
special coordinator for Rwanda/Burundi. The White House said
Bogosian will continue "working from Washington to coordinate
implementation of overall policy toward these two countries."

A member of the House of Representatives from 1979 to 1992,
Wolpe served 10 years as chairman of the House Foreign Affairs
Committee's Subcommittee on Africa.

Following is the text of the White House announcement:


I am pleased to announce the appointment of former U.S.
Representative Dr. Howard Wolpe as Special Envoy of the
President and Secretary of State for Burundi Peace
Negotiations. He will work closely with Ambassador Richard
Bogosian, who continues to serve as the Rwanda/Burundi Special
Coordinator working from Washington to coordinate
implementation of overall policy toward these two countries.

Dr. Wolpe will lend U.S. influence and support to efforts
aimed at bringing an end to the crisis in Burundi, which has
claimed more than 100,000 lives in the last two and a half
years. Dr. Wolpe brings to this mission a wealth of experience
gained during 14 years as a member of Congress from Michigan,
including 10 years as Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs
Subcommittee on Africa, and recently as a Visiting Fellow at
the Brookings Institution. Dr. Wolpe received his Ph.D. from
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Political Science
focusing on Africa.



June 28, 1996

LYON, France -- White House Press Secretary Mike McCurry on
June 28 welcomed the results of the recent Arusha summit talks
between leaders from Burundi, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania,
Kenya, and Uganda.

Following is the text of McCurry's statement, released at the
G-7 talks in Lyon, France:


The United States welcomes the results of the recent Arusha
Summit meeting at which the heads of state of Burundi,
Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, along with
representatives from Zaire and the OAU, agreed to prepare a
joint security assistance plan to help the Burundian
authorities bring peace and stability to that troubled
country. The U.S. hopes this initiative can play an important
role in halting the ongoing violence in Burundi.

The cooperation exhibited by the Burundi President, Prime
Minister, Defense Minister and National Security Council in
crafting this initiative and recommending its adoption to
participate at the Arusha Summit is a laudable breakthrough
and demonstrates the continued utility of responsible
authorities joining together to end the violence. This same
spirit of cooperation and mutual support will be essential to
bring reconciliation to Burundi. We salute the efforts of
those leaders involved and call on the people of Burundi to
seize this opportunity to find a path toward lasting peace.

The United States will continue to play an active role in
support of regional and international efforts to forge an
enduring settlement to the conflict in Burundi. The Special
Envoy of the President and Secretary of State for Burundi
Peace Negotiations Howard Wolpe and Rwanda/Burundi Special
Coordinator Richard Bogosian are en route to the region to
discuss ongoing peace efforts and implications of the
recommendations of the Arusha Summit.

Amnesty International News Service 122/96

AI INDEX: IOR 63/04/96 -- 4 JULY 1996


Yaounde -- Amnesty International representatives attending the
64th Council of Ministers Meeting of the Organization of
African Unity (OAU), being held in Yaounde, Cameroon from 1-5
July 1996, are urging African States to take concrete measures
to stop the massive human rights violations occurring in

"Hundreds of civilians, both Tutsi and Hutu, are being killed
each week in Burundi by the military and armed groups,"
Amnesty International said. "Unless the OAU provides bold
leadership to the international community, the situation will
continue to deteriorate rapidly. The worst could still come."

The worldwide human rights organization is pleased that
Burundi is receiving priority attention at this meeting. In
his report to the session, the Secretary-General of the OAU,
Dr Salim A. Salim, underscored that the present situation in
Burundi is very alarming. At the same time a meeting of
concerned states in the Great Lakes region is considering
Burundi's request for security and humanitarian assistance.

"The Council of Ministers should note that all past peace
initiatives have failed because they did not address human
rights issues," Amnesty International said. "It is essential
that violations of human rights which are guaranteed in the
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights are addressed for
any conciliation efforts to succeed."

"There can be no permanent solution to the conflict unless
effective steps are taken to end human rights violations,
investigate past violations and bring those responsible to

It is the failure to address these issues in the Great Lakes
region, and also in other African countries, that has resulted
in the increasing figure of nine million refugees and
internally displaced people in the African continent. The lack
of serious guarantees against extrajudicial executions,
torture, "disappearances" and unfair trials has prevented the
millions who have fled from returning to their homes.

The urgency of the situation in Burundi requires this meeting
of the OAU to provide clear guidance to the international
community by recommending concrete measures which may be taken
by the United Nations and its member states to put an end to
the massacres. These recommendations should include:

* Measures to guarantee the impartiality of the security
forces and the judiciary, and to enable the judiciary to
institute impartial investigations into human rights

* The monitoring of military security and police transfers to
armed groups and government forces, to ensure that they do not
contribute to further human rights abuses, and to use their
influence to stop supplies or transfers which may be used to
commit human rights violations;

* A guarantee that everyone has equal access to the law and
accused persons receive prompt and fair trials;

* A guarantee that all allegations of collusion between
government forces and armed groups to commit human rights
violations are rigorously investigated and that irregular
paramilitary forces are disbanded;

* The public release of the report of the UN Commission of
Inquiry into the assassination in October 1993 of former
President Melchior Ndadaye and the massacres which followed;

* Any political settlement should be based on human rights
protection, including a commitment to institutional reform
aimed at creating a solid human rights framework; and

* The European Union should urgently provide the funding it
has promised to enable the number of UN human rights monitors
to be increased from the current five.

Amnesty International exhorts member states of the OAU to
prove their commitment to find lasting solutions to the
Burundi crisis by actively participating in and providing
personnel and other resources for any human rights initiatives
undertaken by the UN.

"The situation in Burundi is a challenge to the credibility
and effectiveness of the OAU and the United Nations," the
organization said.

This News Service is posted by the International Secretariat
of Amnesty International, 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 8DJ
(Tel +44-71-413-5500, Fax +44-71-956-1157, E-mail: Please notify ains if this message is
reposted. For more information on Amnesty International send
a message to, an automatic reply

This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC), the educational
affiliate of the Washington Office on Africa. APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and


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